What is the proper balance between individuals and society concerning the use and control of knowledge?
Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550 - 1800 Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Section 1 The Scientific Revolution
Background to the Revolution • Also known as the Age of Reason • Rediscovery of ancient works made clear different ways of thinking about the world around you. • New inventions led to new discoveries. • Telescope, microscope, printing press • The study of mathematics became the foundation of the revolution.
A Revolution in Astronomy • The Ptolemaic System • Geocentric – earth at the center of the universe.
A Revolution in Astronomy • 1543, Nicholas Copernicus publishes On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. • Copernican Universe • Heliocentric – sun centered • Johannes Kepler • Laws of Planetary Motion • 1st Law: Planetary orbits were elliptical, not circular.
A Revolution in Astronomy • Using the telescope, Galileo Galilei proved that the heavenly bodies were not orbs of light but material substance, just as Earth was. • Gave legitimacy to the Copernican theory of the universe. • Challenged the Catholic Church!
Section 2 The Enlightenment
Path to Enlightenment • 18th century movement; greatly influenced by the scientific revolution and _____________. • Issac Newton • Greatest genius of the Enlightenment. • John Locke • Argued every person was born with a blank mind and molded by their experiences.
Philosophes and Their Ideas • Enlightenment intellectuals were known by the French word philosophe – “philosopher” • Goal was to apply reason to all aspects of society, including religion and politics.
Philosophers and Their Ideas • Montesquieu • Government functioned through a separation of powers. • Voltaire • Criticized Christianity and advocated religious toleration. • Diderot • Produced a collection of Enlightenment ideas, published in the Encyclopedia.
Toward a New Social Science • Economics • Adam Smith – The Wealth of Nations; outlined his doctrine of laissez-faire, meaning the state should not interfere in the economy. • Justice • Beccaria - Opposed capital punishment and proposed a new approach to justice.
The Later Enlightenment • Rousseau • Presented his concept of the social contract – an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will. • Mary Wollstonecraft • Advocated women’s rights
Religion in the Enlightenment • Religion remained an essential part of European society. • John Wesley, an Anglican minister led the religious movement known as Methodism. • Stressed hard work and encouraged behavior that led to spiritual contentment.
Chapter 10 Section 3 The Impact of the Enlightenment
The Arts • Architecture and Art • Grandiose palaces • Artistic style known as rococo spreads across Europe. • Emphasized grace, charm, and gentle action • Music • Johann Sebastian Bach • Frederick Handel • Franz Joseph • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism • The philosophes believed in __________ ________ for all. • How were these rights to be established and preserved? • People needed to be ruled by enlightened rulers. • Religious toleration, freedom of speech, and the rights of private property. • Enlightened Absolutism -
Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism • Prussia: ________ and _______________ • King Frederick I • Maintained a bureaucracy of civil service workers. • Doubled the army’s size • Frederick II (Frederick the Great) • Well educated and cultured • Made enlightened reforms -
Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism • The Austrian Empire • Joseph II • “I have made philosophy the lawmaker of my empire.” • Reforms – • Reform program largely failed.
Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism • Russia • Catherine the Great • Favored a new code of law that would recognize equality of all. • Never acted on it because she needed the support of the nobility. • Led to worse conditions for the peasants and eventually to rebellion.
Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism • Enlightened Absolutism? • How enlightened were the enlightened rulers?
War of the Austrian Succession • 1740, Frederick II invades Austria after the succession of Maria Theresa. • Prussia allies with France • Austria allies with Great Britain • After seven years of fighting all parties agree to return all occupied territories. • Dispute over Silesia
The Seven Years War • The rivalry of Britain and France over colonial empires leads France to abandon Prussia and ally with Austria. • Great Britain allies with Prussia. • Led to another major war fought in major areas: Europe, India, North America.
Chapter 10 Section 4 Colonial Empires and the American Revolution
Bell Ringer • What’s the difference between revolution and treason? • Persistent Issues in History • When are the people justified in rebelling against the government?
Colonial Empires in Latin America • In the 16th century: • Portugal dominates Brazil • Spain est. an empire that includes parts of North, Central (Latin America), and most of South America. • Diversity in Latin America: • Native Americans • Europeans • Africans • Mestizos – offspring of Europeans and Natives • Mulattoes – offspring of Africans and Europeans
Colonial Empires in Latin America • Source of Wealth: • Gold and silver • Agriculture • Trade • Church and State • Catholic missionaries establish missions • Built cathedrals, hospitals, orphanages, and schools
Britain and British North America • United Kingdom • Refers to the unification of the governments of England and Scotland (1707) • Power shared by the monarch and Parliament • British empire expands with the acquisition of Canada and India after the Seven Years War. • North American colonies had legislatures that acted independently from Parliament. • Who has authority?
The American Revolution • After the Seven Years War (French and Indian War), Parliament wanted to get new revenues from the colonies to pay the war costs. • Stamp Act (1765) • After widespread opposition, it was repealed a year later.
The American Revolution • First Continental Congress formed to counteract British policies. • Encouraged the raising of militias. • The Fighting begins, April 1775: Lexington and Concord • Second Continental Congress • Formed the Continental Army • July 4, 1776 – Declared Independence
The American Revolution • French supplied arms, money, officers, soldiers, and ships. • Washington forces Cornwallis to surrender at Yorktown in 1781. • Treaty of Paris (1783) recognized the independence of the American colonies.
Birth of a New Nation • The Articles of Confederation, America’s first constitution created a weak central gov. • Americans created a new social contract under the Constitution. Enlightenment concepts of liberty and representative government become a reality for the first time. • Federal system – power shared between national and state governments.
Birth of a New Nation • Bill of Rights • Guaranteed freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and religion. • Protected natural rights. • The American Revolution was seen as the living embodiment of the Enlightenment’s principles.