The United States of America 英语国家概况 英语国家概况
Chapter 13 Literature The United States of America 英语国家概况
The Colonial and Revolutionary Periods I The Romantic Period The Contemporary Period VI II The Realistic Period III The Naturalistic Period IV V The Modern Period CONTENT
1.3 Representative figures and works 1.1 Feature inthe Colonial Period 1.2 Feature in the Revolutionary Period The Colonial and Revolutionary Periods I
Q1: Who were the first Americans? How did they come to America? 1.1 The Colonial Period(1607-1775) Q2: What is the influence of pluralism on American literature?
1.1 The Colonial Period (1607-1775)(cont.) • Character of Writings—religious, practical, or historical. • American Puritanism—major topic stresses • predestination (预言) • original sin • total depravity (堕落) • limited atonement (赎罪) or the salvation (拯救) of a selected few who would receive God’s grace. Discussion: Compare the American Puritanism with Chinese Confucianism.
1.2 The Revolutionary Period • representative work—Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence. • Character of Declaration of Independence • rhetorical (带修辞色彩的) vigor • refined diction (措辞) • polished style • ardent longing for freedom Q: How was American literature forwarded in the Revolutionary Period?
1.3.1 Jonathan Edwards 1.3.2 Benjamin Franklin 1.3 Representative Figures
1.3.1 Jonathan Edwards • religious idealism • powerful sermons (布道)—preaching the puritan ideas and condemning people’s depravity. • best-known work— “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” (1741). • initiating the Great Awakening Movement to revive Puritanism.
1.3.1 Jonathan Edwards (cont.) • Almanac—published continuously for almost a quarter of a century. • adages (格言) and sayings • “A penny saved is a penny earned.” • “Early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.”
1.3.2 Benjamin Franklin • levelheaded (头脑冷静的) common sense • a completely worldly man; a statesman, ambassador, scientist, essayist as well. • Poor Richard’s Almanac—both a literary achievement and a profitable business.
1.3.2 Benjamin Franklin (cont.) • Autobiography—most famous work. • “the faithful account of the colorful career of America’s first self-made man”—rising from poverty and obscurity (身份低微) to wealth and fame. • Autobiography—a record of spiritual growth in addition to self-examination and self-improvement.
2.3 Writers of Poetry 2.1 Feature 2.4 Questions 2.2 Writers of Fiction II The Romantic Period (1790-1865)
2.1 Feature • American Renaissance. • Character of American writings • free expression of emotions, attention to the psychic (精神的) states of their character. • exalted (赞美) the individual and the common man. • revealed unique characteristics of their own and grew on the native lands. • Best Representives • Washington Irving & James Fennimore Cooper • Walt Whiteman & Emily Dickinson
Washington Irving James Fennimore Cooper Ralph Waldo Emerson Nathaniel Hawthorne EdgarAllanPoe HermanMelville 2.2 Writers of Fiction 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6
2.2.1 Washington Irving (1783-1859) • “the father of American literature” • the first to write using the local color and the details in his works. • symbolism to the themes. • Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow—most famous stories.
2.2.2 James Fennimore Cooper (1789-1851) • two great figures of American mythology: the brave frontiersman and the bold Indian. • author of the “Leather Stocking Tales”—a series of five novels • The Pioneers (1823) • The Last of the Mohicans (1826) • The Prairie (1827) • The Pathfinder (1840) • The Deerslayer (1841) • frontiersman hero—Natty Bumppo representing the ideal American.
2.2.3 Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) • chief spokesman of New England Transcendentalism—summit of American Romanticism. • defined as “the recognition in man of the capacity of knowing truth intuitively, or of attaining knowledge transcending the reach of the senses”. • His essays have a casual style. • The best—Nature and Essays
2.2.4 Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) • a descendant of Puritan immigrants. • a pioneer in psychological description. • wrote as a moralist; tried to find out how men reacted in their mind when they found they had done something wrong; exposed the evils of the society by describing the psychological activities of human beings. • most famous novel—TheScarlet Letter • other works • The House of Seven Gables (1851) • The Blithedale Romance (1852) • The Marble Faun (1860)
2.2.5Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) • a lonely writer both in life and literature history. • literary output: poetry, short stories, and reviews for literary works. • strange theme and style make him an outsider of the main current of American literature. • foreigners acclaimed him as genius • masterpieces • The Raven (1845) • The Fall of the House of Usher (1839)
2.2.6 Herman Melville (1819-1891) • fame—established on Moby Dick. • acknowledged as one of the world’s great masterpieces. • theme—too far advanced for his contemporaries • presenting a bleak view of the world: • the universe is Godless and purposeless; • human life is also meaningless and futile.
Walt Whitman Emily Dickinson 2.3 Writers of Poets 2.3.1 2.3.2
2.3.1 Walt Whitman (1819-1892) • poems—The Leaves of Grass • combined the ideal of democratic common man and that of the rugged individual • poetic style • free verse—poetry without a fixed beat (拍子) or regular rhyme scheme. • his poetry ironically ignored by the general public due to his unconventional style.
2.3.2 Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) • different from Whitman • the poetess—turned to the outer world and embraced society, democracy and nation; • cast her eyes inward to explore the inner feelings of the individual. • shy and sensitive nature, she avoided visitors and led a quite reclusive (隐居的) life.
2.3.2 Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) (cont.) • short poems • the real world—invisible in the concise lines, neither are there people. • nature dwell in her world, and metaphysical (形而上学的) thinking like death and immortality occupies her mind. • most famous poems • My Life Closed Twice Before Its Close (1896) • Because I could Not Stop for Death (1890) • A Narrow Fellow in the Grass (1891) • constructing a wonderful world—small but intense, fresh, individual and original.
2.4 Questions Q1: What are the characteristics of American writing during the Romantic period? Q2:How much do you like Nathaniel Hawthorne’s work—The Scarlet Letter, and how do you interpret the letter “A”?
3.1 Feature 3.2 Representative Figures III The Realistic Period (1790-1865)
3.1 Feature • a reaction against Romanticism. • stressing—truthful treatment of material. • the writings are concerned with the world of experience, the commonplace, the familiar and the low. • dominant figures— • Mark Twain • William Dean Howells • Henry James
Mark Twain Henry James William Dean Howells 3.2 Representative Figures 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 2.2.5 2.2.6
3.2.1 Mark Twain (1835-1910) • grew up in the Mississippi River frontier town of Hannibal, Missouri. • Twain’s style— based on vigorous, realistic, colloquial American speech—a new appreciation of their national voice. • first major author coming from the interior of the country; capturing its distinctive, humorous slang and iconoclasm.
Masterpiece 3.2.1 Mark Twain (1835-1910) (cont.) • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn • Huck’s inner struggle between his sense of guilt in helping Jim to escape and profound conviction that Jim is a human being. • Through escape, he gets to know Jim better and accepts Jim as both a human being and a loyal friend.
Other Famous Novels 3.2.1 Mark Twain (1835-1910) (cont.) • The Adventure of Tom Sawyer (1876) • The Prince and the Pauper (1882) • Life on the Mississippi (1883) • The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg (1900) • The Mysterious Stranger (1916)
Contribution 3.2.1 Mark Twain (1835-1910) (cont.) • making colloquial speech an accepted, respectable literary medium in literature. • influence of his style • sweeping across the American literary world. • far-reaching • making Some 20th-century writers acknowledge their indebtedness (受惠) to Mark Twain
3.2.2 Henry James (1843-1916) • bridges the 19th and 20th centuries and connects America and Europe. • “the international theme” —the meeting of America and Europe. • Europeans—more cultured, more concerned with art, and more aware of the subtleties of social situations • Americans—morality and innocence
Major Works 3.2.2 Henry James (1843-1916) (cont.) • The American (1877) • Daisy Miller (1878) • The Wings of the Dove (1902) • The Golden Bowl (1904) • The Portrait of A Lady (1881)
3.2.3 William Dean Howells (1837-1920) • realism—photographic pictures of externals but includes a central concern with “motives” and psychological conflicts. • prolific writer— drama, poetry and novels in addition to criticism, travelogues (旅行见闻) and autobiography. • masterpiece—The Rise of Silas Lapham (1885)
4.1 Feature 4.2 Representative Figure The Naturalistic Period (1900-1914) IV
4.1 Feature • Apply principles of scientific determinism to fiction and drama. • Viewing human beings as animals in the natural world responding to environmental forces and internal stresses and drives.
Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945) 4.2 Representative Figure • American values—materialistic • human individual is obsessed with a never-ending, yet meaningless search for satisfaction of his desires. • Money • Sex • embracing social Darwinism • “the survival of the fittest”
Masterpiece 4.2 Representative Figure (cont.) • Sister Carrie (1900) • Carrie—a country girl looking for a better life in Chicago. Drouet took her home as mistress. Hurstwood, Drouet’s friend, deserted family and forced her to run away with him. Carrie became a famous actress; Hurstwood committed suicide. • Dreiser’s naturalistic pursuit • expounding the purposelessness of life • attacking the conventional moral standards.
Other Works 4.2 Representative Figure (cont.) Trilogy (三部曲) of desire • The Financer (1912) • The Titan (1914) • The Stoic (1945) • masterpiece—The American Tragedy (1925)
5.1 Lost Generation 5.2 Modern Poetry The Modern Period (1914-1939) V
F. Scott Fitzgerald 5.1.1 Ernest Hemingway 5.2.2 5. 1 Lost Generation Q: What is the Lost Generation? • American writers caught in WWI and cut off from the old values; unable to come to terms with the new era. 5.1.1
5.1.1 F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940) • The Great Gatsby—amasterpiece in American literature. • Gatsby discovers the devastating cost of success in terms of personal fulfillment and love. • Gatsby’s life pattern: • first, a dream • Then, disenchantment (觉醒) • Finally, a sense of failure and despair • end of the American Dream
5.1.2 Earnest Hemingway (1899-1961) • Nobel Prize winner • major works • A Farewell To Arms (1928) • For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) • The Old Man and the Sea (1952)
5.1.2 Earnest Hemingway (1899-1961)(cont.) • Hemingway’s world—chaotic and meaningless • man fighting a solitary struggle against a force he does not understand. • Hero possessing a “despairing courage”. • the courage enables a man to behave like a man, to assert his dignity in face of adversity (灾祸). • writing style— colloquialism • concrete, specific words • casual and conversational • short, simple sentences
5.2 Modern Poetry Representative Figure • Ezra Pound (1885-1972)— a link between US and Britain • Imagism • “image” • something that “presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time.” • The Cantos— he wrote and published until his death.
Jewish Writers The Beat Movement 6.2 6.3 Women’s Voices 6.5 Drama 6.6 VI The Contemporary Period (1939- ) Black Writers 6.1 Literature of Modern South 6.4
6.1 Black Writers • Richard Wright—Native Son (1940) • Ralph Ellison—Invisible Man (1952) • James Baldwin—Go Tell It on the Mountain (1954) • readers conscious of an oppressed race groaning and struggling for salvation