PA Standards 3.2.12.A: Inquiry and Design 3.2.12.C: Inquiry and Design 3.2.12.D: Inquiry and Design 3.4.12.A: Physical Science, Chemistry, and Physics 3.7.12.A: Technological Devices “Quality isn't something that can be argued into an article or promised into it. It must be put there. If it isn't put there, the finest sales talk in the world won't act as a substitute.” - G.C. Campbell Evaluate the nature of scientific and technological knowledge. Apply the elements of scientific inquiry to solve multi-step problems. Analyze and use the technological design process to solve problems. Apply concepts about the structure and properties of matter. Apply advanced tools, materials and techniques to answer complex questions. Quality Control
Key Questions • What is quality control and why is it important in the production process? • How do properties of matter relate to the carbonated beverage industry? • What lab techniques can be used in quality control testing of carbonated beverages?
What is quality control and why is it important in the production process?
Quality Control • What is important in products that you consume, such as carbonated beverages? • Taste of the product • Quality Control • Consists of the policies and procedures followed by an industry to assure the consumer that the final product meets specifications. • Specifications • Set properties that a particular product or process must possess to meet a company’s standards. • Off-Specification
Carbonated Beverage Industry • Economics • National Soft Drink Association • Late 1990s, >136,000 people employed in soft drink industry in the U.S. • 95% of the people in the U.S. drink soft drinks • At least 450 different types
Carbonated Beverage Industry • Product • Solution – a homogenous mixture in which one or more substances (solutes) are dissolved in another substance (solvent) • Raw Materials • Water • Sweetener – corn syrup • Flavoring Concentrate • Carbon Dioxide
Quality Control Testing • What tests need to be carried out on the off-spec batch of cola? • Taste • Sugar Content • pH • Color • Carbonation Level
Manufacturing Process • Carbonated Beverage Video
How do properties of matter relate to the carbonated beverage industry?
Lab • The Soft Drink Taste Test • Pages 11-13 • Complete Lab with Lab Group • Discuss Results as a Class
Taste Buds • What are Taste Buds? • Small sensory organs found on the tongue that allow you to experience tastes • Most basic level, to promote the ingestion of nutritious substances and prevent the consumption of potential poisons/toxins • Taste receptors specific to a certain type of taste
Taste Buds • What do we taste? • Tastes may be sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami (savory) • Sweet – energy rich nutrients • Salty – allows regulating diet for electrolyte balance • Umami – taste of amino acids (ex. meat, cheese) • Sour – taste of acids • Bitter – allows sensing of natural toxins
Taste Buds • How many taste buds do we have? • Approximately 10,000 on human tongue • Replaced approximately every 2 weeks • Older person may only have 5,000 working taste buds • Females typically have more taste buds than males • Weakest of the five senses
Structure • Papillae • Bumps on top of tongue that aid in gripping food, most of which contain taste buds • Taste Buds • Flask-like shape with broad base and taste pore opening on top • Chemoreceptors • Translate chemical signals in food into electrical signals in body
Types of Papillae • Fungiform papillae • Resemble a mushroom • Present at tip and sides of tongue • Filiform papillae • Thing, long, “V”-shaped • Don’t contain taste buds • Most numerous • Foliate papillae • Ridges and grooves near posterior part of tongue • Circumvallate papillae • 3-14 total • Present on back of tongue • Arranged in circular-shaped row
Taste Buds • Study of Taste Buds • “Average Taster” • 184 taste buds per square centimeter of tongue • “Supertaster” • One in every four people • 425 taste buds (fungiform papillae) per square centimeter • “Non-Taster” • 96 taste buds per square centimeter • Warming – sweet taste? • Cooling – salty or sour taste?
How Do They Work? • Microvilli • Very sensitive microscopic hairs • Chewing and salvia breaks down food • Send messages to brain about tastes • Role of the Smell • Olfactory Receptors send messages to brain about what you smell • When chewing, chemicals from food released into nose • Trigger olfactory receptors to create a true flavor
How Do They Work? • Sweet, Bitter, and Umami • G-protein (guanine) Coupled Receptors • Triggers a release of a messenger protein • Triggers other channels to create an action potential • Salty and Sour • Ion Channels • Ions (sodium ion or hydrogen ion) trigger ion channels in taste buds • Change electric charge and begins action potential • Cranial Nerves • Three nerves carry action potential from taste buds to brain
What Impacts Your Taste? • Think about times that you cannot taste very well… • Cold or Allergies • Nose is stuffy and food may lack flavor • Nose cannot receive chemicals to trigger olfactory receptors • Hold your nose when you eat • Do you get the exact flavor? • Medications, smoking, hot food, lack of vitamins, brain health, chemical exposure, and radiation may impact ability to taste
Lab • Mapping Your Taste Buds Lab • Pages 14-16 • Complete Lab with Lab Group • Discuss Results as a Class • After completing the lab, read the taste bud articles and complete the writing assignment.
Article Assignment • Read the taste bud articles and complete the writing assignment.
Water • Very abundant • Makes up most of the tissue of living things • Many products are based on water • Water is a fundamental ingredient of Carbonated Beverages • Two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom • H2O
Polarity • Hydrogen and Oxygen • Share electrons • Covalent bonds • Do not share atoms equally • Oxygen 8 protons • Hydrogen 1 proton • Pulls shared electrons toward oxygen’s nucleus • Electrical charge distributed unevenly • Oxygen – slightly negative • Hydrogen – slightly positive
Polarity • Polar – uneven pattern of charge • Water is very effective in dissolving many other substances • Good solvent • Polar substance placed in water regions of +/- charges are attracted to regions of opposite charges on water molecules • Ex. NaCl in water • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HMxVEpiM5Xw&feature=related
Hydrogen Bonding • Water molecules attract to each other • Hydrogen bond • Weak chemical bond between the hydrogen atom in one molecule and a negatively-charged region of another molecule • Cohesion • Attractive force between particles of same kind • Surface tension of water – a thin “skin” on surface • Ex. Water spider • Adhesion • Attractive force between unlike substances • Capillarity – water moves upward against force of gravity
Temperature Moderation • Must gain or lose a relatively large amount of energy for its temperature to change • High Specific Heat – amount of energy needed to change 1 g of water 1 degree C • Heated – most energy absorbed breaks H bonds between molecules • After bonds broken, thermal energy increases motion of molecules and raises temperature
Other Properties • States of Water • Solid, liquid, gas • pH • neutral – pH of 7
Carbonated Beverages • Taste is Critical • Pure water – no dissolved impurities • Water must be treated • Appearance • Clear and Colorless • Coloring agents
Review • Polar • Solubility • Cohesion • Surface tension • Adhesion • Capillarity • Specific Heat • Temperature moderation
Water Property Demos • Water in a straw • Adhesion • Water Drops on Penny • Cohesion • Sugar in Water • Polarity • Water in Paper • Adhesion • Water in overflowed Test Tube • Cohesion • Lake Temperature in Summer • Temperature Moderation (Specific Heat)
What lab techniques can be used in quality control testing of carbonated beverages?
Hard Water • How does water become hard? • As water moves through soil and rock (limestone or chalk), it dissolves very small amounts of minerals and holds them in solution. • Calcium (Ca2+) and Magnesium (Mg2+)
Soft Water • Where does it come from? • Granite or sandstone source • Contains sodium ions • Small amounts of calcium and magnesium.
Hard vs. Soft Water • Measured in parts per million (ppm) or grains per gallon (gpg) • What type of water does Pennsylvania have? Why? • Hard water - limestone
Hard Water • Advantage • Watering lawn • Irrigate crops • Tends to taste better than soft water • Disadvantage • More soap/detergents needed to clean items • Combines with soap to create “scum” • Forms insoluble salt with metal ions in hard water
Soft Water • Advantage • Improves cleaning efficiency by 250% • Soap can create far more bubbles • Prevents scaled build up in pipes/appliances • Can save 21-29% in water heating bill • Disadvantage • Avoid drinking soft water if you have cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, or on a low-salt diet • Recent studies, though, indicate amount of salt is insignificant
Solutions • Solution • Mixture of two or more substances • One or more of which is dissolved in the other • Solvent • Present in the largest amount • Does the dissolving • Solute • Small amounts • What is being dissolved
Solutions • Carbonated Beverage • Solvent • Water • Solute • Corn syrup, flavoring concentrate, carbon dioxide
Solutions • Concentration • Ratio of the solute to the solvent in a solution • Mass Percentage • Way to make solution • Ex. 10 g sucrose + enough water to bring the mass of the solution to 100 g is what percent sugar solution? • 10 percent • Carbonated Beverages • Regular • Very sweet, high sugar • Concentrated • Regular with melted ice • Not sweet • Diluted
Hydrometer • Hydrometer • Instrument used to determine sugar concentration • Specific Gravity • Solution’s density compared to the density of pure water at 4 degrees C • Density • Ratio of mass to volume • Ex. large Styrofoam block or small iron bar magnet • Density of Water – 1 g/mL at 4 degrees C
Activity • Density Problems Worksheet