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Quality, Quality Control

Quality, Quality Control

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Quality, Quality Control

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  1. Quality, Quality Control Lee Buddress, Ph,D., C.P.M. Robert G. Gleason Professor and Director Supply and Logistics Program Portland State University

  2. Control Charts • Processes Have Natural Variation • Fundamental Question: • Natural Variation or Process Change? • That is what Statistical Process Control is All About • Key Assumptions: • Sample is RANDOMLY selected • Defects are randomly distributed throughout the lot • Cautionary Note: Works Best for High Volume, Repetitive Tasks

  3. Sampling • For Defects (What is Quality of Lot?) • For Conformance to Specification (No More Than X% Defective)

  4. Control Chart Types • Attribute Charts (things counted) • P-chart: Proportion Defective • C-chart: Number of Defects • Focus is on PRODUCT output • Variable Charts • X-chart: Sample Means • R-chart: Range Means • Focus in on PROCESS, itself

  5. Control Chart Exercise

  6. Control Chart Problem Indicators • One Data Point Outside Control Limit • Two Data Points in Zone Three • Five Consecutive Data Points on One Side of the Mean • Trend - Five Successive Points in a Trend • Erratic Behavior • Sudden Change in Behavior

  7. Check Sheet

  8. Pareto Analysis • A Prioritization Tool • Law of Diminishing Returns

  9. 5 ‘M’s (+) • Ishikawa Diagrams (Fishbone) • Man • Machine • Method • Materials • Maintenance • Environment

  10. Why-Why • Goal is to Get Past Symptoms to Underlying Cause • Ask Why Until No Further Useful Information is Forthcoming

  11. Quality and Supply Chains • Customer Requirements • Specifications • Supplier Selection • Process Capability • Quality Evaluation • First Article Inspection • Defect Detection • Defect Prevention

  12. Quality and Supply Chains • Supplier Certification • ISO 9000 • Incoming Receiving • Legal Requirements for Inspection • Latent Defects • Learning Curves

  13. Total Quality Management • TQM Principles • Know/Understand Customers and Requirements • Satisfy/Delight Customers • Continuous Improvement Elements of TQM • Process Identification • Process Mapping • Process Simplification • Process Controls • Track - Monitor • Continuous Improvement

  14. Standardization • Internal • Processes • Materials • Equipment • External • Industry Standards (Materials) • Industrial Standardization (SAE) • Multi-Industry (ANSI, ASTM) • International (ISO, Metrics)

  15. Standardization • Industry Standards • Company Standardization • Impacts on Inventory • Impacts on Purchasing • Impacts on Maintenance and Repair • Impacts on Quality • Implementation

  16. Standardization & Quality • Quality and Multiple Sourcing • Standardization = Known Characteristics • Supplier Certification • Why is it so important to get it right the first time? • Manufacturing • All Other Processes

  17. Questions, Comments, Observations, Conclusions, Arguments?