Pancreatic Cancer James, Sarah, Jesus
What is it? -Tumors and cancer cells develop in the Pancreas -Pancreas assists in food absorption -Diabetes, smoking, and pancreatic inflammation increase risk -Symptoms include fatigue, jaundice, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting
Statistics -Each year in the U.S., approximately 42,000 individuals are diagnosed with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. -For decades, the 5-year survival rate has been 1-3%, and median survival after diagnosis is 6 months, although estimates vary.
Treatments -Surgery is done to remove tumors -When tumors are inaccessible, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are performed -Chemotherapy: Chemicals that kill cancer cells and prevent it from spreading are given. -Radiation Therapy: Damages the DNA of rapidly developing cells such as cancer cells, and kills them.
Genetic relationship K Ras, a gene that serves as a molecular on-off switch When mutated gets stuck on the "on" position, over activates NF-κB, a protein complex that controls activation of genes. K Ras is mutated in 80 to 95 percent of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, and is the most frequent mutation among all cancers." Overactive NF-κB fuels the disease by triggering genes that promote the growth of new blood vessels, inflammation, and block programmed cell death.
new potential drug target Name: interleukin-1α i attempts to inhibit mutated K Ras, has defied treatment. Therefore, scientist are targeting to inhibit one of its downstream genes, the direction of transcription or translation, interleukin-1alpha ,(IL-1α) as potential therapeutic target.
Breakthrough on pancreatic cancer Cambridge News announced a few days ago that the Cambridge Research Institute has discovered something that can help pancreatic cancer. This is a treatment expands blood vessels leading to the tumor. By doing this, medication can travel easier into the tumor, for example medications containing large molecules.This medication targets an enzyme that allows this to happen. The vessels are so compressed that its said the molecules allowed to travel are ‘cement’ like. Only two medications with small molecules are able to treat this, gemcitabine and doxorubicin. With the help of this enzyme, more medications will be developed in order to attack the tumor.
Something interesting Ralph Steinman was a biologist who contributed his efforts to the medical research and cancer research. He was very well known by his work in dendritic cells, but he also worked hard with something called “Tumor Immunology”. Last year he won a Nobel Prize award for all his work. The bad part was that the group that nominated him did not know he had died three weeks before he actually received the prize. He did not receive an award but his name was written down instead.