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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Nationalism and the System of Alliances Liberals during the first half of the 1800s hoped that the formation of European nation-states would lead to peace.  However, the imperialist states that emerged during the second half of the 1800s became highly competitive over trade and colonies. (pages 717–718) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-7

  3. Nationalism and the System of Alliances(cont.) Two main alliances divided Europe: TheTripleAlliance (1882) was made up of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy; and the TripleEntente (1907) was made up of France, Great Britain, and Russia. (pages 717–718) Section 1-8

  4. Nationalism and the System of Alliances(cont.) During the early 1900s, several crises erupted, particularly in the Balkans, which created a great deal of anger and tension between the nations of the two alliances.  Each nation was willing to go to war to preserve its power. (pages 717–718) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-9

  5. Nationalism and the System of Alliances(cont.) European ethnic groups, such as Slavs in the Balkans and the Irish in the British Empire, dreamed of creating their own national states, which also increased tensions in Europe. (pages 717–718) Section 1-10

  6. Internal Dissent Another source of strife in Europe was dissent within nations.  As socialist labor movements became more powerful, they used strikes to achieve their goals, which led to unrest.  Conservative national leaders feared that revolutions would break out.  Some historians believe that these leaders may have been willing to go to war in order to suppress internal dissent. (pages 718) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-12

  7. Militarism After 1900 there was a huge increase in the size of European armies, which increased tensions among nations.  Conscription–compulsory service in the military–was common in Europe before 1914.  Between 1890 and 1914 European armies doubled in size.  The numbers of soldiers in European armies were: Russia, 1.3 million; France and Germany, 900,000 each; Britain, Italy, and Austria-Hungary, 250,000 to 500,000 each. (pages 718–719) Section 1-15

  8. Militarism (cont.) Prior to 1914, European countries aggressively prepared for war.  This militarism led to the increased power of military leaders, who created complex war plans.  Because powerful military leaders did not want to alter their war plans, they greatly limited the choices of political leaders in time of international crisis. (pages 718–719) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-27

  9. The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914 While militarism, nationalism, and the desire to control internal dissent all had a part in starting World War I, the outbreak of fighting stemmed directly from events in the Balkans in 1914. (pages 719–720) Section 1-20

  10. States in southeastern Europe had long struggled for independence from the Ottoman Empire. Russia and Austria-Hungary competed for control of these new states. In 1914, Serbia wanted to form a large Slavic state in the Balkans.  Serbia was supported by Russia and opposed by Austria-Hungary.  Many Europeans were afraid that this conflict in the Balkans would lead to war. (pages 719–720) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-21

  11. The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914 (cont.) In June 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and his wife were killed by the Serbian terrorist Gavrilo Princip in the city of Sarajevo. The Serbian terrorists wanted Bosnia to become independent from Austria-Hungary. (pages 719–720) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-22

  12. The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914 (cont.) The Austro-Hungarian government wanted to declare war on Serbia but was worried that Russian would come to Serbia’s aid. Austrian leaders asked for help from their German allies.  Emperor William II agreed to give Germany’s full support.  In July 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. (pages 719–720) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-23

  13. The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914 (cont.) Russia responded by supporting Serbia.  Czar Nicholas II ordered partial and then full mobilization of the Russian army.  Austria-Hungary and Germany considered the mobilizations acts of war. (pages 719–720) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-24

  14. The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914 (cont.) The Germans warned the Russians to halt mobilization, and the Russians refused. Germany then declared war on Russia on August 1.  Because Russia and France were allies, Germany had planned to defeat France first and then attack Russia with full force. (pages 719–720) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-25

  15. The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914 (cont.) This plan, designed by General Alfred von Schlieffen, was called the Schlieffen Plan. Germany declared war on France on August 3. (pages 719–720) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-25

  16. The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914 (cont.) The Germans demanded that Belgium–a neutral country–allow German armies to pass through it on the way to France.  This action led Britain, who was allied with France and Russia, to declare war on Germany.  By August 4, World War I had begun. (pages 719–720) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-26

  17. 1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate The events of August 1914 shattered two previously held ideas: that war was not worth fighting and that diplomats could prevent war. (pages 721–723) Section 2-7

  18. 1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate (cont.) Government propaganda–ideas spread to influence public opinion–had stirred up national hatreds before the war.  When the war began, propaganda was used to urge people to defend their own country.  The majority of people thought their country’s cause was just. (pages 721–723) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-8

  19. 1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate (cont.) All European wars since 1815 had only lasted a few weeks.  In August 1914, most people thought the war would be over by Christmas. (pages 721–723) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-9

  20. 1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate (cont.) On the Western Front, Germany swept through Belgium into northern France and was stopped a short distance from Paris at the First Battle of the Marne.  The Western Front turned into a stalemate, with neither side able to push the other out of the system of trench warfare they had begun.  The trenches stretched from the English Channel nearly to the Swiss border.  For four years both sides remained in almost the same positions. (pages 721–723) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-10

  21. 1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate (cont.) On the Eastern Front, the war was far more mobile. The Russian army moved into eastern Germany but was defeated at the Battle of Tannenberg and the Battle of Masurian Lakes, making Russia no longer a threat to invade Germany.  The Russians defeated Austria-Hungary and dislodged them from Serbia. (pages 721–723) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-11

  22. 1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate (cont.) The Italians, who had been allied with Germany and Austria-Hungary, broke their alliance in 1915 and attacked Austria-Hungary.  The Germans came to the aid of the Austrians and together they defeated the Russians in several battles and drove them back.  About 2.5 million Russians had been killed, captured, or wounded. (pages 721–723) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-12

  23. 1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate (cont.) The Russians were almost out of the war. After defeating Serbia, Germany turned its attention back to the Western Front. (pages 721–723) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-13

  24. 1916 to 1917: The Great Slaughter The trenches on the Western Front included massive tangles of barbed wire, machine-gun nests, gun batteries, and heavy artillery.  The soldiers lived in holes in the ground.  The territory between the two sides was called no-man’s-land. (pages 723–724) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-15

  25. 1916 to 1917: The Great Slaughter (cont.) Military leaders did not know how to fight trench warfare.  They were used to mobile battles.  The only plan they could devise was to order masses of soldiers to attack the other side and try to break through. (pages 723–724) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-16

  26. 1916 to 1917: The Great Slaughter (cont.) Each side tried this tactic.  They would begin with heavy artillery and then send in thousands of troops.  The men who attacked were completely exposed to machine-gun fire.  Millions of young men died in these attacks, and no breakthrough came.  At Verdun, France, in 1916, 700,000 men were killed in 10 months.  World War I had become a war of attrition, where each side tried to wear the other down. (pages 723–724) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-17

  27. 1916 to 1917: The Great Slaughter (cont.) Airplanes for war were used for the first time in World War I.  By the end of 1915, airplanes spotted enemy positions from the air.  Later they attacked ground targets.  In time, machine guns were mounted on airplanes, and they fought each other for control of the air. (pages 723–724) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-18

  28. 1916 to 1917: The Great Slaughter (cont.) The Germans used their giant gas-filled airships to bomb points in Britain, but they stopped when the British realized that they could easily shoot down the airships. (pages 723–724) Section 2-19

  29. Widening of the War Because the war in the trenches was bogged down, both sides tried to get new allies and to widen the war.  In November 1914, Russia, Great Britain, and France (the Allies) declared war on the Ottoman Empire.  In 1915, they tried to open a Balkan front by attacking Gallipoli, near Constantinople. (page 724) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-21

  30. Widening of the War (cont.) Then Bulgaria entered the war on the side of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire (the Central Powers). The Allies withdrew from Gallipoli after a disastrous campaign.  Italy opened up a front against Austria-Hungary on the side of the Allies.  In 1918, British forces from Egypt defeated the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East.  They used troops from Australia, India, and New Zealand. (page 724) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-22

  31. Widening of the War (cont.) The Allies seized German colonies in the rest of the world. Japan, an ally of Britain, seized German-held islands in the Pacific Ocean. (page 724) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-23

  32. Entry of the United States The United States tried to stay neutral in the first years of World War I. This became more difficult as the war dragged on. (pages 725–726) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-25

  33. Entry of the United States (cont.) The naval war between Britain and Germany became the reason why the United States joined the war.  In order to keep supplies from reaching their enemies, each country enforced a naval blockade of the other.  German submarines sank both military and civilian ships, including passenger ships.  This practice was called unrestricted submarine warfare. (pages 725–726) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-26

  34. Entry of the United States (cont.) In 1915, the Germans sank the British ship Lusitania, killing 1,100 civilians and causing strong protests from the American government.  The Germans stopped unrestricted submarine warfare for some time until German naval officers such as Admiral Holtzendorff convinced the emperor to resume the practice. (pages 725–726) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-27

  35. Entry of the United States (cont.) The Germans did not think that the United States would enter the war before the British were starved.  However, in April 1917, the United States responded to unrestricted submarine warfare by declaring war on Germany.  Though large numbers of American troops did not arrive until 1918, the Allies were given a powerful psychological boost as well as money and supplies. (pages 725–726) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-28

  36. The Home Front: The Impact of Total War World War I became a total war that required a complete mobilization of people and resources.  It demanded the total commitment of the countries involved, soldiers and civilians alike.  The war had an enormous impact on everyone’s life. (pages 726–727) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-30

  37. The Home Front: The Impact of Total War (cont.) As the war dragged on, governments had to increase their powers in order to obtain the manpower and supplies they needed. Millions of men were drafted into the military.  Governments set up planned economies, which included economic controls, food and material rationing, regulated transportation, and controls on imports and exports. (pages 726–727) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-31

  38. The Home Front: The Impact of Total War (cont.) Governments and leaders such as U.S. president Woodrow Wilson saw all citizens as part of the war effort. (pages 726–727) Section 2-32

  39. The Home Front: The Impact of Total War (cont.) As the casualties mounted in the war, public support for the war waned.  Authoritarian governments used force to keep people working.  Other governments passed new laws to severely restrict dissent, exercised increased control of news sources, and tried to keep morale up with new propaganda techniques. (pages 726–727) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-33

  40. The Home Front: The Impact of Total War (cont.) Women assumed new roles during World War I, taking over jobs previously held only by men, including factory and trucking jobs.  These changes were generally seen as temporary, lasting only while men were away fighting the war.  One positive result of women’s role in the war was that in Germany, Austria, and the United States they were given the right to vote not long after the war ended. (pages 726–727) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-34

  41. The Home Front: The Impact of Total War (cont.) Most women in Britain were given the right to vote in 1918 before the end of the war. (pages 726–727) Section 2-35

  42. Background to Revolution Due to a lack of experienced military leaders and technology, Russia was unprepared for World War I. The Russian army was poorly trained and equipped and suffered terrible losses.  By 1917, the Russian will to continue fighting in the war had disappeared. (pages 732–734) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-7

  43. Background to Revolution (cont.) Czar Nicholas II relied on his army and government to keep him in power.  His wife Alexandra cut him off from events.  She was strongly influenced by Grigori Rasputin, who claimed to be a holy man.  Though he had no military experience, Czar Nicholas II insisted on commanding the army in the field and was away from the capital.  In his absence, Alexandra made important decisions with the help of Rasputin. (pages 732–734) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-8

  44. Background to Revolution (cont.) The Russian people became increasingly upset with the czar and his wife due to military and economic disasters.  Conservatives wanted to save the deteriorating situation and assassinated Rasputin late in 1916.  However, this did not save the monarchy. (pages 732–734) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-9

  45. Background to Revolution (cont.) In March 1917, working-class women led a series of strikes in the capital city of Petrograd. They were upset about bread shortages and rationing.  They called a general strike that shut down all the factories. (pages 732–734) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-10

  46. Background to Revolution (cont.) Alexandra reported the situation to Nicholas, describing the demonstrators as hooligans. Nicholas responded by ordering troops to break up the crowds with force.  However, many soldiers refused to shoot and joined the demonstrators.  On March 12, the Duma, or legislature, met and established a provisional government.  The government then urged the czar to step down, which he did. (pages 732–734) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-11

  47. Background to Revolution (cont.) The provisional government was headed by Alexander Kerensky and decided to continue fighting the war. This was a grave mistake, as it upset workers and peasants who wanted to end the years of fighting. (pages 732–734) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-12

  48. Background to Revolution (cont.) The government was also challenged by the soviets–councils representing workers and soldiers–who came to play an important role in Russian politics. Soviets sprang up around the country, and were mostly made up of socialists. (pages 732–734) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-13

  49. The Rise of Lenin The Bolsheviks were a small faction of a Marxist party. They were led by V. I. Lenin and were dedicated to a violent revolution to overthrow the capitalist system. (page 735) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-15

  50. The Rise of Lenin (cont.) Lenin lived abroad between 1900 and 1917. When the provisional government was formed, he went to Russia hoping that the Bolsheviks could seize power.  German military leaders helped him travel to Russia in an attempt to create disorder. (page 735) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-16