Multiple Intelligences INSET DAY Wyche C.E. School
What is intelligence? Intelligence is …. “ the capacity to act purposefully thinking rationally and deal effectively with the environment” David Wechsler (inventor of Wechsler adult intelligence scale)
What is intelligence? “An intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings” Howard Gardner (1989)
What is intelligence? “Intelligence is the capacity to do something useful in the society in which we live. Intelligence is the ability to respond successfully to new situations and the capacity to learn from one’s past experiences.” Dr. Howard Gardner, author, Frames of Mind and Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice
What is intelligence? The Question isn’t “How intelligent is the child?” But “In what ways is the child intelligent?” Trevor Hawes Effective Teaching and Learning
What is intelligence? “It’s not how smart you are it’s how you are smart” H. Gardner “Common miracles”1993
What is intelligence? "How would the proverbial Martian landing on Earth view the intelligence of the human species?" Harvard professor of education, Howard Gardner.
What is intelligence? Both Tom Cruise and Robbie Williams both were voted “the child most likely to succeed in life” by their classmates What were the criteria used?
A story of intelligence? A belligerent Samurai once challenged a Zen master to explain the concept of Heaven and Hell. But the monk, replied with scorn saying “You’re nothing but a lout, I can’t waste my time with the likes of you.”His very honour attacked the Samurai flew into a rage and pulling his sword from it’s scabbard yelled, “I could kill you for your impertinence.”“That,” the monk calmly replied, “is Hell.”Startled at seeing the truth the master had pointed out about the fury that had him in its grip, the Samurai calmed down, sheathed his sword and bowed, thanking the monk for the insight.“And that,” the monk replied, “is Heaven.”
Traditional View “In my experience most people, both teachers and the general public, still hold the view that there is a single general intelligence (IQ) which children have to a greater or lesser extent and can be accurately measured on an intelligence test” Deborah Eyre Able Children in Ordinary schools (1997)
Binet and Simon • The founder of these traditional ideas was Alfred Binet (a Frenchman working in the early 20th cent) with his colleague Theodore Simon • Binet’s work saw intelligence as hereditary and therefore unchanging
Binet and Simon “IQ has been thought to be a fixed limit on an individual’s capacity to learn – which leads to being regarded as more or less able than their peers” Trevor Hawes Effective Teaching and Learning
Binet and Simon • If his premise is true one could devise a test that would definitively determine intelligence levels for life • Binet used his tests to sift out retarded children and place children in appropriate grade levels
Binet and Simon • Binet’s work influenced government opinion and led to the 11+ selection system • His work was later found to be fabricated • He even made up his two assistants
Binet and Simon Do we fall into this trap? “Oh yes he’s really intelligent” But what do we mean? Intelligent at what? In what context?
Binet and Simon “The fact that such a view remains dominant is a legacy of the 1944 education act. This was firmly rooted in the view that intelligence was inherent and measurable and that these different levels of intelligence needed different types of education” Deborah Eyre Able Children in Ordinary schools
Intelligence : Changing Views “The assumption that a high IQ is essential for outstanding achievement is giving way to recognition of the vital role of …. personal attributes such as motivation, self discipline, curiosity and a drive for autonomy” Freeman (1995)
Intelligence : Piaget • Piaget began work in the 1920’s in Simon’s laboratory • He became concerned with the emphasis being placed on the answer and not on the processes children employed to get there
Intelligence : Piaget • His developmental theory is well known and has formed the basis for much recent educational thinking • However his theory still concentrates on a Linguistic/Mathematical based model
Intelligence : Sternberg • Sternberg was the first to develop a theory that broke away form the one cohesive intelligence model • He developed a tripartite theory with three sub theories these included: • Context • Experience • Information Processing
Section 3:An Introduction toMultiple IntelligenceThe Views of Howard Gardner
Gardener’s Premise • Intelligence is not a single general capacity that each individual has to a greater or lesser extent of the mind • Intelligence cannot be measured by simplistic pen and paper tests or their like
Gardener’s Definition of Intelligence “An intelligence is the ability to solve problems or create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings” Frames of Mind Introduction to second edition p14 Gardener March 1993
Western Cultural Values • The Greeks valued Academia • The ability to remember factual information and process it cognitively • Emphasis on Numeracy and Literacy
Western Cultural Values • There is a distinction between the Academic and the Intelligent • Academic relies on retention of information and applying it to academic contexts (e.g. writing articles) • Intelligence is more broad and more nebulous to define
Western Cultural Values • Traditionally the education system has been weighted towards the latter • Andy’s response to the question “What was that chemical?” He was able to outline its use and its name
Historical Values • In medieval times the core subjects in the curriculum were: • Grammar, logic and rhetoric, Mathematics, Geometry, Astronomy and Music Frames of Mind Introduction to second edition p7 Gardener March 1993
The South American Tribe The skill that was prized was the ability to hunt the monkey • Accuracy with poisoned darts • General high levels of fitness and stamina
Contextualisation of Intelligence Increasingly there is a trend within the behavioural sciences to cease seeing intelligence as an innate, fixed commodity but to determine a person’s intelligence in the light of the social context they find themselves in
Contextualisation of Intelligence Hence: The skills needed in today’s society differ greatly from those in the post industrial revolution and will again differ from those required in the knowledge economy of the 21st Century
Multiple Intelligences The first pages of Gardner’s book set out his desire to develop a theory of intelligences that crosses cultural and social boundaries The Puluwat tribesman chosen to be a master sailor able to navigate around the islands by the stars The 15 year old Iranian student who has memorised the Koran by heart The 14 year old adolescent in Paris who has programmed the computer and is writing music with the aid of a synthesiser
Who is more Intelligent? • Who is more intelligent and how would we know? • The Beckham and Einstein brain debate • Much of it will be governed by what society deems to be intelligent behaviour
Theories and Band Wagons • There is little value in picking up and running with individual theories • They need to dovetail into a wider educational philosophy • Constructivist theory
Multiple Intelligences • Verbal/Linguistic - "Word Smart" • Logical/Mathematical - "Math Smart" • Musical/Rhythmic -"Music Smart" • Bodily/Kinesthetic - "Body Smart" • Visual/Spatial -"Art Smart" • Interpersonal -"People Smart" • Intrapersonal -"Self Smart" • Naturalist -"Nature Smart" • Existential -"Wondering Smart"
Linguistic Intelligence • Language consists of • Phonology • Syntax • Semantics • Pragmatics The first two are all about pure linguistic intelligence The latter have input from other sources of intelligence such as inter-personal, logical etc.
Linguistic Intelligence • Language is crucial that of the language area of the brain is destroyed the brain uses areas given over to spatial abilities • The appreciation of shades of meaning
Linguistic Intelligence • It was only in the middle ages with the advent of the printing press that written language became important until then oral language was deemed a higher quality to attain
Linguistic Intelligence • Hence rhetoric is valued in leaders • Public schools, African cultures today • The great Greek debates and the emphasis on oratory as a key skill
Linguistic Intelligence • Today, has the internet made written communication more important • Will the advent of video conferencing revert us back to verbal language as a core communication skill?
Linguistic Intelligence • Written Language is harder because a context for it needs to be supplied • Verbal language has by definition a context and has the added dimension of gestures and facial expression • Novels can be translated poems can’t
Musical Intelligence • To some the art of musical composing is something that flows naturally • “It is something that the composer is born to do” Aaron Copland • “I constantly hear tones in my head” Roger Sessions
Musical Intelligence To some composing is as natural as: • “Milk coming from a cow” (Wagner) • “Apples coming from an apple tree” (Saint-Saens) • “It’s just easy” David Lowe
Musical Intelligence • Music is made up of two major components • Pitch (or melody) • Rhythm • This may be horizontal ie. how the pitch alters over time • Vertical where melody and rhythms combine at the same time
Musical Intelligence “music occupies a relatively low niche in our culture, and so musical illiteracy is acceptable” Frames of Mind Introduction to second edition p7 Gardener March 1993