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Presidents of the United States

Presidents of the United States. The Chief Executive. French and Indian War. Review: War between who? British and French (Spain entered later on French side) Fighting over what? North American Territory What are the effects? Britain Wins and gains lands. BEFORE. AFTER.

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Presidents of the United States

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  1. Presidents of the United States The Chief Executive

  2. French and Indian War • Review: • War between who? • British and French (Spain entered later on French side) • Fighting over what? • North American Territory • What are the effects? • Britain Wins and gains lands


  4. AFTER

  5. Proclamation Act of 1763 • To avoid conflict with the Native Americans Britain decided to limit settlement west of the colonies already established. • This enraged many farmers and land speculators who wanted access to the land.

  6. Revolution and Northwest Ordinance • In the Revolutionary War American Colonist gained control of all of Britian’s land claims in North America. • The Colonists are no longer under the restrictions of the Proclamation Line of 1763 • Northwest Ordinance-1787 • Created the Northwest Territory • 1st organized territory in United States • Established the precedent by which the federal government would be sovereign and expand westward across North America with the admission of new states, rather than with the expansion of existing states and their established sovereignty under the Articles of Confederation.

  7. George Washington 1789-1797 The first President of the country’s history. The General over the continental Military during the American Revolution. The chairperson over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. Legacy: Establishes precedents, including first Cabinet Positions The Bill of Rights Jay’s Treaty with England and Pickney’s Treaty with Spain. French Revolution Cotton Gin Invented in his time period Farewell Speech: Principle concern, protect the Constitution (go to page 1068)

  8. Creation of Vermont • In 1791 Vermont was the 1st State admitted into the United States after the original 13 • Set a precedent that each new state is equal to the original 13 • The people in Vermont mainly opposed slavery • Kentucky is admitted later that year (favors slavery) Keeps Balance

  9. John Adams 1797-1801 Federalist Second President of the United States A lawyer by profession Winner of first real contested election XYZ Affair (1797) The Alien and Sedition Act (1798)

  10. Thomas Jefferson 1801-1809 Democrat-Republican Writer of the Declaration of Independence Opposed much of the political stances of his federalists predecessors. Louisiana Purchase and Louis and Clark expedition (1804-1806) Marbury vs Madison (1803) Embargo Act (1807) Beginning of the Second Great Awakening

  11. Louisiana Purchase • 1800-Napoleon Bonoparte convinced Spain to give Louisiana back to France • Thomas Jefferson (President) believed that having France back in North America would force the US into an alliance with British, whom Jefferson despised. • He sent ambassador Robert Livingston to negotiate with France. • Napoleon was making plans to conquer Europe and did not want to risk an alliance between Britain and the US which would hurt his plans in Europe. • So, Napoleon offered to sell the Louisiana Territory as well as New Orleans to the US for 11.25 Million. • The US agreed—this more than doubled the size of the US.

  12. War of 1812 • US vs. Great Britain • Reasons: • Trade restrictions brought about by Britain's continuing war with France • The impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy • British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion • American interest in annexing British North American territory (part of modern day Canada) • Results: • No boundary changes •  The British proposal to create a "neutral" Indian zone in the American West was rejected at the Ghent peace conference and never resurfaced. • Video (my website)

  13. Andrew Jackson 1829-1837 Democrat A former general and war hero in the War of 1812 (the Battle of New Orleans). Indian Removal Act (1830), Trail of Tears Nullification Crisis (1830) Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia (1831) Video of Jackson

  14. Native Americans • How are Native Americans affected by Westward Expansion? • Primary Source Readings • Source • Contextualize • Compare • Read, answer questions, discuss • Video

  15. The National Road • Aka: Cumberland Road • 1811-1824 • first major improved highway in the United States to be built by the federal government. • The approximately 620-mile long National Road provided a connection between the Potomac and Ohio Rivers and a gateway to the West for thousands of settlers.

  16. Mountain men • Mountain Men were hunters who were mainly seeking fur and beaver pelts which could be sold for a lot of money. • The Mountain Men Heyday was between 1820 and 1830

  17. Rocky Mountain Fur company • Started by William Henry Ashley, an entrepreneur from Virginia • Advertised for “enterprising young men . . . to ascend the river Missouri to its source, there to be employed for one, two, or three years” • The men who responded to this call became known as "Ashley's Hundred." • Between 1822 and 1825, Ashley and Henry's Rocky Mountain Fur Company, did several large scale fur trapping expeditions in the mountain west. • Ashley devised rendezvous: system in which trappers, Indians and traders would meet annually in a predetermined location to exchange furs, goods and money.

  18. Jedediah Smith • One of “Ashley’s Hundred” • First white man to travel overland from the Salt Lake frontier, the Colorado River, the Mojave Desert, and finally into California. Smith was the first United States citizen to explore and eastwardly cross the Sierra Nevada and the treacherous Great Basin. Smith also was the first American to travel up the California coast to reach the Oregon Country. • Survived being mauled by a bear • JedediahSmith's explorations and documented discoveries were highly significant in opening the American West to expansion by white settlers and cattlemen.

  19. Jim Bridger • Joined “Ashley’s Hundred” at age 18 • One of the first white men to see the Great Salt Lake • Married three different native women (they kept dying) • Shortened the Oregon Trail by 61 miles (Bridger’s Pass) • Bridger’s • Pass was the chosen route for the Railroad and eventually Highway 80 • He helped many different wagon trains as they traveled West

  20. How Did Mountain Men Affect Expansion? • Creating trails • Writing experiences in journals • Mapping • Building forts • Guiding travelers

  21. James K. Polk 1845-1849 • Dark Horse Candidate • Democrat • Manifest Destiny • Mexican War (1846-1848) • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: the forced Mexican Cession of the territories of Alta California and New Mexico to the U.S. in exchange for $15 million • Expansion of the Union: Texas, California, Utah • Wilmot Proviso (1846)

  22. Manifest Destiny • Separate PPT

  23. Abraham Lincoln 1861-1865 First Republican President Lawyer Abolitionist Served at the time of the Civil War Emancipated the slaves in the South Gettysburg Address (1863) Was able to pass the 13th amendment, regarding the end of slavery. (1865) First President to be assassinated in office (by John Wilkes Booth, 1865)

  24. Transcontinental Railroad • The transcontinental railroad created a nation-wide transportation network that united the country. This network replaced the wagon trains of previous decades and allowed for the transportation of larger quantities of goods over longer distances. • Read and Answer Questions On: • Homestead Act • Pacific Railway Act

  25. Union Pacific • Created by the Pacific Railway Act in 1862 • Built from East to West • Built primarily by Irish immigrants • Other workers included whites, African Americans, and Asians

  26. Central Pacific • Authorized to expand from California eastward in 1962 by the Pacific Railway Act • Built from West to East • Most of the railroad workers were Chinese • “The Big Four” • Sacramento businessmen who financed the Railroad (paid back by government) • Leland Stanford • Collis Huntington • Charles Crocker • Mark Hopkins

  27. Promontory Point • The Union Pacifica and Central Pacific railroads were racing to cover as much land as possible, nobody knew exactly where they would meet up until they started to draw near to each other. • The railroad companies were given massive amounts of land (10 miles on both sides of the tracks) where they built, this land would become extremely valuable, so they wanted to build as much track as they could. • They finally met at Promontory Summit, Utah. • On May 10, 1869, Leland Stanford drove the Last Spike (or golden spike) that joined the rails of the transcontinental railroad. • Video

  28. Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909 Republican Revives the Presidency Rough Rider during the Spanish American War American Imperialism Trust Buster Progressive Social Welfare Action Meat Inspection Act (1906) pg. 571 National Parks (Yosemite) Teddy Bear Environmental Conservatism

  29. Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921 Idealist Progressive Neutrality Mexican Revolution World War I Treaty of Versailles (League of Nations) Petticoat Government Red Scare

  30. Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933-1945 Democrat Social Programs Longest serving president in history (12 years) The New Deal World War II Executive Order 9066 (Japanese Internment)

  31. Harry S. Truman 1945-1951 Democrat From Missouri End of WWII Dropped the Atomic Bomb on Japan Beginning of the Cold War

  32. John F. Kennedy 1961-1963 Democrat First Catholic President Bay of Pigs (April 1961) Cuban Missile Crisis (October 14-28, 1962) Growth of NASA: “We choose to go to the moon.” Assassinated in Dallas, TX (1963)

  33. Richard Nixon 1969-1974 • Republican • Only President to resign (August 9, 1974) • US lands on the Moon (July 1969) • Vietnam War (1965-1975) • Pentagon Papers (1971) • Visits China (1972) • Watergate (1972) • S.A.L.T. (1972) • Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty

  34. Ronald Reagan 1981-1989 Republican Former Actor Ends the Iran hostage crisis Trickle Down Economy (Reaganomics) Arms Race The Berlin Wall Come Down

  35. Bill Clinton 1993-2001 Democrat Second President ever impeached Controversial President Economic Prosperity Impeachment Trial (1999)

  36. George W. Bush 2001-2009 Republican 1st Father-Son President combo since John Adams, and John Quincy Adams September 11th, 2001 War on Terror: Afghanistan, Iraq Hurricane Katrina (2005) Great Recession (2008-2009)

  37. Barack Obama 2009-Present Democrat First African-American President Government Bailout (2009) Nobel Peace Prize (2009) Social Media impact Obamacare (2009) Killing of Osama Bin Ladin (2011) Libya Embassy bombing (2012) NSA Leaking: Edward Snowden (2013)

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