Download
carbs lipids nucleic acids n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Carbs , Lipids, & Nucleic Acids PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Carbs , Lipids, & Nucleic Acids

Carbs , Lipids, & Nucleic Acids

81 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Carbs , Lipids, & Nucleic Acids

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Carbs, Lipids, & Nucleic Acids Chapter 5

  2. Carbohydrates

  3. Carbohydrates • Sugars (Monosaccharides) • Monomer of polysaccharide • Glucose (Blood Sugar) • Disaccharides • 2 Monosaccharide • Glycosidic Linkage • Sucrose (table sugar) (Gluc-Fruc) • Polymers of sugars (Polysaccharides) • Macromolecule • Starch, Glycogen - Energy • Cellulose, Chitin - Structure

  4. Animations • 05_05Disaccharides_A.swf • 05_07Polysaccharides_A.swf

  5. Nucleic Acids

  6. Nulceotides Nucleic Acid • Nucleic Acid = Polynucleotide (polymer) • Nucleotide = monomer • Nucleotide consists of 3 parts • Pentose sugar • Phosphate group • Nitrogenous base

  7. Purines & Pyrimidines

  8. More Animations • Animation-03-01.swf • (Nucleic Acids)

  9. DNA vs. RNA

  10. Questions (P1) • What are the 3 components of a nucleotide? • How does a nucleotide differ from a nucleic acid? • How does a nucleotide differ from a nucleoside? • What are 3 structural differences between DNA & RNA?

  11. Questions (Answers P1) • What are the 3 components of a nucleotide? • Nitrogenous Base (nucleobase), 5-carbon sugar (Ribose or Deoxyribose), and Phosphate group • How does a nucleotide differ from a nucleic acid? • Nucleic acid (polynucleotide) is a polymer of nucleotides • How does a nucleotide differ from a nucleoside? • Nitrogenous Base (nucleobase), 5-carbon sugar (Ribose or Deoxyribose), NO PHOSPHATE GROUP • What are 3 structural differences between DNA & RNA? • DNA is 2-stranded • DNA has A, C, G, and T; RNA has U in place of T • DNA has H on 2’ Carbon; RNA has OH on 2’ Carbon

  12. Questions (P2) • Which n-base type has 1 ring? 2-rings? • What is the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology? • In DNA, the amount of A = ? Amount of G = ? • In DNA, the amount of purines equals the amount of ____ ? • In DNA, if G = 15% then what is the percent of the other nucleobases?

  13. Questions (Answers P2) • Which n-base type has 1 ring? 2-rings? • Pyrimidine (CUT) = 1-ring Purine (AG) = 2-ring • What is the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology? • DNA  RNA  Protein • One way ONLY • In DNA, the amount of A = ? Amount of G = ? • [A] = [T] & [G] = [C] • In DNA, the amount of purines equals the amount of ____ ? • Pyrmidines • In DNA, if G = 15% then what is the percent of the other nucleobases? • C = 15%, A = 30%, T = 30%, U = ?

  14. Lipids

  15. Lipids are… • Diverse class of molecules • Commonality: Hydrophobic Macromolecules • Will they dissolve in water? • NOT Polymers • Fats – Energy storage • Phospholipids – Main component of membranes • Steroids - Hormones • Cholesterol

  16. Fats • Constructed from Glycerol + Fatty acids • Ester linkage forms 1 fat from these parts • What type of reaction forms an ester linkage?

  17. Types of Fats • Saturated • No double bonds in the fatty acid • Animal fats • Linked to heart disease • Solid at room temperature • Unsaturated • At least 1 double bond • Plant fats • Called oils • Liquid at room temperature

  18. Trans Fats • Do NOT occur naturally • Only in Labs • Unsaturated fats are chemically “saturated” with hydrogen atoms • Some double bonds FAIL, trans- configuration • Taste really good • Cardiovascular Killers • Food labels & 0% Trans fats • Also called Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils

  19. Trans fat Elaidic Acid Cis fat Oleic Acid

  20. Nutrition Facts Serving Size: 1 oz (28g) Amount per Serving Calories 160 Calories from Fat 90 % Daily Value Total Fat 10g 22%   Saturated Fat 1.5g 7%  Trans Fat 0g Cholesterol 0mg 0% Sodium 290mg 13% Total Carbohydrates 15g 5%   Fiber 0g 0%   Sugar 1g     Other Carbohydrates 14g   Protein 2g 2% Enriched Corn Meal (Corn Meal, Ferrous Sulfate, Niacin, Thiamin Mononitrate, Riboflavin, and Folic Acid), Vegetable Oil (Contains One or More of the Following: Corn, Soybean, or Sunflower Oil), Whey, Salt, Cheddar Cheese (Cultured Milk, Salt, Enzymes), Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil, Maltodextrin, Disodium Phosphate, Sour Cream (Cultured Cream, Nonfat Milk), Artificial Flavor, Monosodium Glutamate, Lactic Acid, Artificial Colors (Including Yellow 6), and Citric Acid.

  21. Questions (P1) • What is the difference between the 2 main types of fats? • What is the common feature for all lipids? • What are the 3 main types of lipids? • What are the components of a fat?

  22. Questions (Answers P1) • What is the difference between the 2 main types of fats? • Presence of double bonds between carbons (Unsaturated Fats) or absence of double bonds (Saturated Fats) • What is the common feature for all lipids? • Not polymers OR Hydrophobic • What are the 3 main types of lipids? • Fats, Sterols, & Phospholipids • What are the components of a fat? • Glycerol head + 3 Hydrocarbon Tails

  23. Questions (P2) • Name 3 ways that unsaturated fats differ from saturated fats? • Why are trans fats different that unsaturated fats?

  24. Questions (Answers P2) • Name 3 ways that unsaturated fats differ from saturated fats? • Unsaturated fats are healthier than saturated fats • Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature, saturated fats are solid • Unsaturated fats have double bonds in their hydrocarbon tails, saturated fats do not • Unsaturated fats are kinked, saturated fats are oriented in a line • Unsaturated fats are plant fats, saturated fats are animal fats • Why are trans fats different that unsaturated fats? • Chemically synthesized in the laboratory • Around the double bonds, a trans- geometric isomerization is created

  25. Phospholipids • Similar to a fat, but only 2 fatty acids • Also has a phosphate group • Hydrophilic + Hydrophobic regions • Found in Phospholipid Bilayer of membranes • The dual nature of phospholipids = barrier

  26. Steroids • Considered lipids because they are hydrophobic!! • Consist of 4 fused rings • Cholesterol is a steroid (huh?)

  27. Questions (P1) • Where would we find phospholipids in an organism? • Name 2 ways that phospholipids are different from fatty acids. • What major type of lipid contains cholesterol? • What is the definition (chemical structure) of a steroid?

  28. Questions (Answers P1) • Where would we find phospholipids in an organism? • In the plasma membranes and organelle membranes • Name 2 ways that phospholipids are different from fatty acids. • Phospholipids only have 2 fatty acids (Hydrocarbon tails) • Phospholipids have a hydrophilic region (Phosphate, Choline, and Glycerol head) • What major type of lipid contains cholesterol? • Sterols or steroids • What is the definition (chemical structure) of a steroid? • 4 fused rings of hydrocarbons

  29. Questions (P2) • Which macromolecules always contain Nitrogen? • Which macromolecules are polymers? • Which macromolecules contain Carbon? Oxygen? Hydrogen? • Which macromolecules are used for energy production? • What is the main use of nucleic acids?

  30. Questions (Answers P2) • Which macromolecules always contain Nitrogen? • Proteins (amino acids) + Nucleic Acids (nitrogenous base or nucleobase) • Which macromolecules are polymers? • Carbohydrates (polysaccharides), Proteins (polypeptides), & Nucleic Acids (polynucleotides) • Which macromolecules contain Carbon? Oxygen? Hydrogen? • All of them • Which macromolecules are used for energy production? • Carbohydrates, Lipids, and sometimes Proteins and Nucleic Acids • What is the main use of nucleic acids? • Storage and copies of genetic information