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August 27 th , 2007 qatar.cmu

Introduction to Computer Architecture Lecture 1 – Introduction. August 27 th , 2007 www.qatar.cmu.edu. Teaching Staff. Instructors Prof. Majd F. Sakr Prof. Karem A. Sakallah TA Zaher Andraus. Where Do We Find a Computer/Processor?. Planes. ATMs. ipod. PDA. Cameras. Cars.

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August 27 th , 2007 qatar.cmu

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  1. Introduction to Computer Architecture Lecture 1 – Introduction August 27th, 2007 www.qatar.cmu.edu

  2. Teaching Staff • Instructors • Prof. Majd F. Sakr • Prof. Karem A. Sakallah • TA • Zaher Andraus

  3. Where Do We Find a Computer/Processor? Planes ATMs ipod PDA Cameras Cars Cell phones Watch Traffic Controller Music Design & Engineering Robots Microwave Games Medical (MRI)

  4. Problem Solution Implementation Computer Result Why Did We Develop Computers? A solution to a problem! • While thinking of a solution,think about: • Cost $$$ • Speed • Energy/Power • Size • Efficiency • etc…

  5. Types of Computers • Personal Computer • Workstation • Server • Supercomputer • Embedded

  6. Number of Computers Sold

  7. Problem Solution Implementation Computer Compiler Our Area of Focus Result Computer Architecture Our Area of Understanding

  8. Where is “Computer Architecture and Engineering”? Application (MediaPlayer) • Coordination of many levels of abstraction Operating Compiler System (Windows XP) Software Assembler Instruction Set Architecture Hardware Processor Memory I/O system Datapath & Control Digital Design Architecture Circuit Design transistors

  9. Anatomy: 5 components of any Computer Personal Computer Keyboard, Mouse Computer Processor Memory (where programs& data live when running) Devices Disk(where programs & data live when not running) Input Control (“brain”) Datapath (“work”) Output Display, Printer

  10. Computer Technology - Dramatic Change! • Processor • 2X in speed every 1.5 years (since ‘85); 100X performance increase in last decade. • Memory • DRAM capacity: 2x / 2 years (since ‘96); 64xsize improvement in last decade. • Disk • Capacity: 2X / 1 year (since ‘97) • 250Xsize increase in last decade.

  11. Tech. Trends: Microprocessor Complexity 2 * transistors/Chip Every 1.5 to 2.0 years Called “Moore’s Law”

  12. Architecture & Organization • Computer Architecture • What the “low level” programmer sees • Types of Instructions • Number of Registers • Types of Operations • Computer Organization • How the designer Implements the Design • Layout • Interconnection (wires)

  13. Architecture Computer Architecture and Organization Application (MediaPlayer) Operating Compiler System (Windows XP) Software Assembler Instruction Set Architecture Hardware Processor Memory I/O system Datapath & Control Layout & Technology Organization Digital Design Circuit Design Transistors

  14. Architecture & Organization 1 • Architecture is those attributes visible to the programmer • Instruction set, number of bits used for data representation, I/O mechanisms, addressing techniques. • e.g. Is there a multiply instruction? • Organization is how features are implemented • Control signals, interfaces, memory technology. • e.g. Is there a hardware multiply unit or is it done by repeated addition?

  15. Architecture & Organization 2 • All Intel x86 family share the same basic architecture • The IBM System/370 family share the same basic architecture • This gives code compatibility • At least backwards • Organization might highly differ between different versions

  16. Arithmetic opcode opcode rs rs rs rt rt rt rd rd rd shamt funct funct funct shamt shamt opcode µProc 60%/yr. (2X/1.5yr) 1000 CPU “Moore’s Law” Instruction Sets Performance 100 Processor-Memory Performance Gap:(grows 50% / year) 10 Performance DRAM 9%/yr. (2X/10 yrs) opcode rs rt offset opcode rs rt immediate Datapaths & DRAM 1 Control 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 I/O Time Memory Systems Course Path Computer Architecture Fall ‘07 Y O U R C P U

  17. Homeworks and Projects • Quizzes (weekly) • Assignment (every ~2 weeks) • Project (every ~3-4 weeks) • End of Semester Project: • Demo • Oral Presentation • Head-to-head Race • Final Report

  18. Course Exams • Reduce the pressure of taking exams • Exam I • Exam II • Final • Goal • Our goal: test knowledge vs. speed writing(no memorization) • Review meetings: before?

  19. Grading • Grade breakdown • Exam I: 10% • Exam II: 10% • Final: 20% • Projects 30% • Homeworks/Quizes 10% • Attendance/Participation: 5% • No late homeworks or projects! • Written request for changes to grades

  20. Our Goals • Show you how to understand modern computer architecture in its rapidly changing form • Show you how to design by leading you through the process on challenging design problems and by examining real designs • Learn application analysis and new design techniques

  21. Text • Required:Computer Organization and Design,3rd Edition, Patterson and Hennessy (COD) • Reference: Computer Organizationand Architecture, 6thEdition, William Stallings • Readings on web pagehttp://williamstallings.com/COA6e.html • Reference: Structured Computer Organization, 4th Edition, Andrew S. Tanenbaum

  22. The Big Picture

  23. Types of Processors

  24. Application System Software Hardware Hardware/Software Divide Excel Internet Explorer Visual Studio Windows XP Linux Solaris OS X PC MAC SUN

  25. Compiler Assembler Program Path to Execution High Level Language Program (.c file) Assembly Language Program (.asm file) Binary Machine Language Program (.exe file)

  26. The Five Components of a Computer

  27. Input&Output ALU &CU M The Motherboard: The five von Neumann components:

  28. Motherboard

  29. Inside the Processor

  30. Manufacturing Process

  31. An 8-inch (200-mm) Diameter Wafer

  32. Computer’s History1st generation: Vacuum Tubes • During World War 2 the Army’s Ballistics Research Laboratory employed more than 200 people to solve essential ballistics equations using desktop calculators.

  33. 1st generation: Vacuum Tubes Professor Mauchly (EE) & his gradate student Eckert proposed to build a general purpose computer using vacuum tubes for the Ballistics Research Laboratory (BRL)

  34. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) • ENIAC built in World War II was the first general purpose computer • Used for computing artillery firing tables • 24 meters long by 2.5 meters high and several meters wide • Each of the twenty 10 digit registers was 1 meter long • Since then:Moore’s Law: transistor capacity doubles every 18-24 months

  35. 1st generation: ENIAC Completed in 1946 Programming the ENIAC • Decimal (not binary) • 20 accumulators of 10 digits • Programmed manually by switches & cables • 18,000 vacuum tubes • 30 tons • 15,000 square feet • 140 kW power consumption • 5,000 additions per second 1 2 0 3 9 4 8 5 7 6

  36. The von Neuman machine - Completed 1952 • Stored Program concept • Main memory storing programs and data • ALU operating on binary data • Control unit interpreting instructions from memory and executing • Input and Output equipment operated by control unit Scientist at the Institute of Advanced Studies

  37. Structure of von Neumann Machine Central Processing UnitCPU Main Memory Input/OutputEquipment Arithmetic –Logic Unit CA Program Control Unit M I/O CC R

  38. Commercial Computers • 1947 - Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation • 1st successful machine: UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer) • Commissioned by the US Bureau of Census for the 1950 calculations • Became part of Sperry-Rand Corporation • Late 1950s - UNIVAC II • Faster • More memory • Upward Compatibility

  39. 2nd Generation: Transistors • Replaced vacuum tubes • Smaller & Cheaper • Less heat dissipation • Solid State device (silicon) • Invented 1947 at Bell Labs The First Transistor

  40. Transistor Based Computers • Second generation machines • NCR & RCA produced small transistor machines • IBM 7000 • DEC - 1957 • Produced PDP-1

  41. Microelectronics • Literally - “small electronics” • A computer is made up of gates, memory cells and interconnections • These can be manufactured on a semiconductor • e.g. silicon wafer

  42. Growth in CPU Transistor Count

  43. Moore’s Law • Increased density of components on chip • Gordon Moore - cofounder of Intel • Number of transistors on a chip will double every year • Since 1970’s development has slowed a little • Number of transistors doubles every 18 months • Cost of a chip has remained almost unchanged

  44. Moore’s Law - Cont’d • Higher packing density means shorter electrical paths, giving higher performance • Smaller size gives increased flexibility • Reduced power and cooling requirements • Fewer interconnections increases reliability

  45. Computer Generations

  46. And in conclusion... • Continued rapid improvement in Computing • 2X every 1.5 years in processor speed; every 2.0 years in memory size; every 1.0 year in disk capacity; Moore’s Law enables processor, memory (2X transistors/chip/ ~1.5 ro 2.0 yrs) • 5 classic components of all computers Control Datapath Memory Input Output } Processor

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