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Introduction to Computer Architecture Lecture 1 – Introduction. August 27 th , 2007 www.qatar.cmu.edu. Teaching Staff. Instructors Prof. Majd F. Sakr Prof. Karem A. Sakallah TA Zaher Andraus. Where Do We Find a Computer/Processor?. Planes. ATMs. ipod. PDA. Cameras. Cars.
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Introduction to Computer Architecture Lecture 1 – Introduction August 27th, 2007 www.qatar.cmu.edu
Teaching Staff • Instructors • Prof. Majd F. Sakr • Prof. Karem A. Sakallah • TA • Zaher Andraus
Where Do We Find a Computer/Processor? Planes ATMs ipod PDA Cameras Cars Cell phones Watch Traffic Controller Music Design & Engineering Robots Microwave Games Medical (MRI)
Problem Solution Implementation Computer Result Why Did We Develop Computers? A solution to a problem! • While thinking of a solution,think about: • Cost $$$ • Speed • Energy/Power • Size • Efficiency • etc…
Types of Computers • Personal Computer • Workstation • Server • Supercomputer • Embedded
Problem Solution Implementation Computer Compiler Our Area of Focus Result Computer Architecture Our Area of Understanding
Where is “Computer Architecture and Engineering”? Application (MediaPlayer) • Coordination of many levels of abstraction Operating Compiler System (Windows XP) Software Assembler Instruction Set Architecture Hardware Processor Memory I/O system Datapath & Control Digital Design Architecture Circuit Design transistors
Anatomy: 5 components of any Computer Personal Computer Keyboard, Mouse Computer Processor Memory (where programs& data live when running) Devices Disk(where programs & data live when not running) Input Control (“brain”) Datapath (“work”) Output Display, Printer
Computer Technology - Dramatic Change! • Processor • 2X in speed every 1.5 years (since ‘85); 100X performance increase in last decade. • Memory • DRAM capacity: 2x / 2 years (since ‘96); 64xsize improvement in last decade. • Disk • Capacity: 2X / 1 year (since ‘97) • 250Xsize increase in last decade.
Tech. Trends: Microprocessor Complexity 2 * transistors/Chip Every 1.5 to 2.0 years Called “Moore’s Law”
Architecture & Organization • Computer Architecture • What the “low level” programmer sees • Types of Instructions • Number of Registers • Types of Operations • Computer Organization • How the designer Implements the Design • Layout • Interconnection (wires)
Architecture Computer Architecture and Organization Application (MediaPlayer) Operating Compiler System (Windows XP) Software Assembler Instruction Set Architecture Hardware Processor Memory I/O system Datapath & Control Layout & Technology Organization Digital Design Circuit Design Transistors
Architecture & Organization 1 • Architecture is those attributes visible to the programmer • Instruction set, number of bits used for data representation, I/O mechanisms, addressing techniques. • e.g. Is there a multiply instruction? • Organization is how features are implemented • Control signals, interfaces, memory technology. • e.g. Is there a hardware multiply unit or is it done by repeated addition?
Architecture & Organization 2 • All Intel x86 family share the same basic architecture • The IBM System/370 family share the same basic architecture • This gives code compatibility • At least backwards • Organization might highly differ between different versions
Arithmetic opcode opcode rs rs rs rt rt rt rd rd rd shamt funct funct funct shamt shamt opcode µProc 60%/yr. (2X/1.5yr) 1000 CPU “Moore’s Law” Instruction Sets Performance 100 Processor-Memory Performance Gap:(grows 50% / year) 10 Performance DRAM 9%/yr. (2X/10 yrs) opcode rs rt offset opcode rs rt immediate Datapaths & DRAM 1 Control 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 I/O Time Memory Systems Course Path Computer Architecture Fall ‘07 Y O U R C P U
Homeworks and Projects • Quizzes (weekly) • Assignment (every ~2 weeks) • Project (every ~3-4 weeks) • End of Semester Project: • Demo • Oral Presentation • Head-to-head Race • Final Report
Course Exams • Reduce the pressure of taking exams • Exam I • Exam II • Final • Goal • Our goal: test knowledge vs. speed writing(no memorization) • Review meetings: before?
Grading • Grade breakdown • Exam I: 10% • Exam II: 10% • Final: 20% • Projects 30% • Homeworks/Quizes 10% • Attendance/Participation: 5% • No late homeworks or projects! • Written request for changes to grades
Our Goals • Show you how to understand modern computer architecture in its rapidly changing form • Show you how to design by leading you through the process on challenging design problems and by examining real designs • Learn application analysis and new design techniques
Text • Required:Computer Organization and Design,3rd Edition, Patterson and Hennessy (COD) • Reference: Computer Organizationand Architecture, 6thEdition, William Stallings • Readings on web pagehttp://williamstallings.com/COA6e.html • Reference: Structured Computer Organization, 4th Edition, Andrew S. Tanenbaum
Application System Software Hardware Hardware/Software Divide Excel Internet Explorer Visual Studio Windows XP Linux Solaris OS X PC MAC SUN
Compiler Assembler Program Path to Execution High Level Language Program (.c file) Assembly Language Program (.asm file) Binary Machine Language Program (.exe file)
Input&Output ALU &CU M The Motherboard: The five von Neumann components:
Computer’s History1st generation: Vacuum Tubes • During World War 2 the Army’s Ballistics Research Laboratory employed more than 200 people to solve essential ballistics equations using desktop calculators.
1st generation: Vacuum Tubes Professor Mauchly (EE) & his gradate student Eckert proposed to build a general purpose computer using vacuum tubes for the Ballistics Research Laboratory (BRL)
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) • ENIAC built in World War II was the first general purpose computer • Used for computing artillery firing tables • 24 meters long by 2.5 meters high and several meters wide • Each of the twenty 10 digit registers was 1 meter long • Since then:Moore’s Law: transistor capacity doubles every 18-24 months
1st generation: ENIAC Completed in 1946 Programming the ENIAC • Decimal (not binary) • 20 accumulators of 10 digits • Programmed manually by switches & cables • 18,000 vacuum tubes • 30 tons • 15,000 square feet • 140 kW power consumption • 5,000 additions per second 1 2 0 3 9 4 8 5 7 6
The von Neuman machine - Completed 1952 • Stored Program concept • Main memory storing programs and data • ALU operating on binary data • Control unit interpreting instructions from memory and executing • Input and Output equipment operated by control unit Scientist at the Institute of Advanced Studies
Structure of von Neumann Machine Central Processing UnitCPU Main Memory Input/OutputEquipment Arithmetic –Logic Unit CA Program Control Unit M I/O CC R
Commercial Computers • 1947 - Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation • 1st successful machine: UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer) • Commissioned by the US Bureau of Census for the 1950 calculations • Became part of Sperry-Rand Corporation • Late 1950s - UNIVAC II • Faster • More memory • Upward Compatibility
2nd Generation: Transistors • Replaced vacuum tubes • Smaller & Cheaper • Less heat dissipation • Solid State device (silicon) • Invented 1947 at Bell Labs The First Transistor
Transistor Based Computers • Second generation machines • NCR & RCA produced small transistor machines • IBM 7000 • DEC - 1957 • Produced PDP-1
Microelectronics • Literally - “small electronics” • A computer is made up of gates, memory cells and interconnections • These can be manufactured on a semiconductor • e.g. silicon wafer
Moore’s Law • Increased density of components on chip • Gordon Moore - cofounder of Intel • Number of transistors on a chip will double every year • Since 1970’s development has slowed a little • Number of transistors doubles every 18 months • Cost of a chip has remained almost unchanged
Moore’s Law - Cont’d • Higher packing density means shorter electrical paths, giving higher performance • Smaller size gives increased flexibility • Reduced power and cooling requirements • Fewer interconnections increases reliability
And in conclusion... • Continued rapid improvement in Computing • 2X every 1.5 years in processor speed; every 2.0 years in memory size; every 1.0 year in disk capacity; Moore’s Law enables processor, memory (2X transistors/chip/ ~1.5 ro 2.0 yrs) • 5 classic components of all computers Control Datapath Memory Input Output } Processor