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¿ What anatomical/physiological features distinguish vertebrates? PowerPoint Presentation
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¿ What anatomical/physiological features distinguish vertebrates?

¿ What anatomical/physiological features distinguish vertebrates?

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¿ What anatomical/physiological features distinguish vertebrates?

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  1. ¿ What anatomical/physiological features distinguish vertebrates? ¿ Who are vertebrates related to, and how are they related to each other ? ¿ In what ecosystems do vertebrates occur ? ¿ What are the roles of vertebrates in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems ? ¿ How many different kinds or species of vertebrates are there ?

  2. The vertebrate story… There are over ____________ living vertebrate species For every ______species there were ~100 that are now ______ Vertebrates are found … Vertebrates range in size from tiny … small enough to fit on a coin, to _________________who are so hugetheir heart is a big a small car Vertebrate lifestyle is … obtain energy as both carnivores and herbivores with many specializations in between

  3. The vertebrate story… Two major groups of vertebrates 1) __________________: * * (~1,000 species) * (~27,000 species) * (~6,400 species)

  4. The vertebrate story… • Two major groups of vertebrates… • _________ , which also has two major groups: • _________________ - • * (~300 species) • * (~8,000 species) • * (~25 species) • * (~9,700 species) Synapsids – *(~4,800 species)

  5. The vertebrate story… New species… ¿How many species are there on planet Earth? Estimates vary by an order of magnitude! Thousands of species described annually Most are small and of “other” kingdoms… still some vertebrates being described. Examples…

  6. Extinct: * *Mostly small fish 2cm (some up to 2m) * *4 openings on dorsal surface of head * Agnatha http://universe-review.ca/I10-27-jawlessfish.jpg

  7. Extant: ______ and ________ * *Hagfish are … *Most Lamprey are… Agnatha http://www.exploretheabyss.com/photo/gallery/gallery/ds_trawl/images/HagfishLR.jpg http://www.glaucus.org.uk/sea-lamprey-sucker-RL.jpg http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/world/images/lamprey.jpg

  8. 3 groups appeared in the Paleozoic: 1) ___________ (ex. Arthrodires) had large boney plates and paired fins Gnathostomes http://www.noaca.org/earlgeo.gif http://www.cnrs.fr/cw/dossiers/dosevol/imgArt/dioram/PaleozoDevon/Zimg/dicksonosteus.jpg

  9. 3 groups appeared in the Paleozoic: 2) __________________ (cartilagenous fishes)*Includes … * * * Gnathostomes http://www.lifeglobe.com/images/product/Sharks/sharks04_r2_c2.jpg http://www.pangaeadesigns.com/_graphics/page/fish/large/ratfish.jpg

  10. 3 groups appeared in the Paleozoic: 3) ___________________ (spiny and bony fishes) * ______________s are (spiny fishes) are extinct *Had skeleton of bone and cartilage *Had … Gnathostomes http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/images/R-acanthodians.gif

  11. Shared ancestors with tetrapods * * Paired fins… either ray finned (_____________) or fleshy finned (___________) Osteichthyans http://www.paleodirect.org/fg009.htm

  12. Basal groups include … Actinopterygii http://www.hellscanyonsportfishing.com/images/sturgeon%20pictures/Kevin%20&%20Sturgeon%202.jpg http://www.digimorph.org/specimens/Polypterus_senegalus/whole/specimen.jpg

  13. Advanced groups include … Actinopterygii http://www.sdafs.org/laafs/Amazing%20Fish%20Pictures/Big%20Alligator%20Gar%2009-03.JPG

  14. * 2 major clades: _________, extinct except “coelocanths” ___________ (and dipnoi)“lungfish” __________________ http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/16cm05/1116/34-14-Coelocanth.jpg http://www.bertsgeschiedenissite.nl/geschiedenis%20aarde/lungfish.jpg

  15. *Paraphyletic group… omitting amniote descendants *Extinct groups include Labrynthodonts (Ichthyostega) *Extant group (Lissamphibia) includes: ______ (caecilians) _________ (salamanders) __________ (frogs) ______________ http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/science/media/Btaitanus-PC1b.jpg http://news.siu.edu/news/May05/images/salamander.jpg http://www.yesnet.yk.ca/schools/wes/webquests_themes/frogs_theme/frogs_K/frog_species/barred/images/barred_leaf_frog_jpg.jpg

  16. Group includes Reptiles and Synapsids __________ (paraphyletic) _________ (testudinea) “turtles” __________ “tuatara” __________ “lizards, snakes etc.” ____________ “crocodiles” etc. ____________ “birds” Amniotes

  17. Amniotes with … Synapsids

  18. _______________ (echidnas and platypus) _______________ (many forms, ex. kangaroos) Mammalia

  19. ________________ (shrews, moles etc.) Mammalia

  20. ______________ (sloths, anteaters and armadillos) _______________ (single species… aardvark) Mammalia

  21. _____________ (single genus… Manis “pangolins”) Mammalia

  22. _______________ (bats) Mammalia

  23. _____________ (lemurs, monkeys, apes etc. Mammalia

  24. ______________ (pikas, hares and rabbits) Mammalia

  25. _________________ (largest mammalian order… rats etc.) Mammalia

  26. _______________ (diverse group) Mammalia

  27. _________________ (carnivores of the sea… seals etc.) Mammalia

  28. _______________ (odd-toed ungulates… horses, tapirs, rhinos) Mammalia

  29. ________________ (even-toed ungulates… sheep, deer, giraffes etc.) Mammalia

  30. _______________ (similar to rodents and ungulates ex. rock hyrax) Mammalia

  31. _______________ (elephants etc.) Mammalia

  32. _______________ (manatees etc.) Mammalia

  33. ____________ (whales and company) Mammalia