WASTE WATER GARDEN® WASTE WATER TREATMENT FOR TROPICAL ZONE
Definition of Waste water Garden Definition of Wastewater Garden : An ecological low-cost beautiful solution for effective sewage and wastewater treatment. Principally, this method combined the conventional waste water treatment with the function of plants in the garden as bacterial absorber and water purifier. This method also transform the appearance of waste water treatment plant to become a natural garden or park.
History of Waste Water Garden Wastewater Gardens were developed over a decade ago (in year 1991) of research by Planetary Coral Reef Foundation (PCRF-US) led by DR. Mark Nelson in order to: • Treat and recycle the water inside Biosphere 2; the world’s largest sealed series of ecosystems second to the earth; and b) For application in the world’s environment to protect freshwater and the ocean from sewage pollution.
History of Waste Water Garden One of the most striking accomplishments for Biosphere 2 is its massive recycling systems. Since the year 1991, crew members (Biospherians) who had to stay around two years inside the Biosphere, have used the same water and recycled all waste products inside. The successful implementation of Wastewater Garden method in Biosphere 2 lead to the use of this system in more common condition, in the real life. Until today Wastewater Garden already installed in more than 150 homes, hotels, businesses, and communities through the world. Currently exist in Australia, Indonesia (Bali, Sulawesi), Bahamas, Mexico, Poland, Belize, Philippines, France, and United States (New Mexico).
Application of WWG in Indonesia Several places in Indonesia that have waste water treatment using this method are : • BAPEDALDA Headquarters, Sanur, Bali • Bruce Residence, Jimbaran, Bali • Catherine Wheeler Residence, Ubud, Bali • Coconuts Beach Resort, Lembongan Island • Froggies Divers, Manado - Bunaken, Sulawesi • Hugo Residence, Bali • Jill Posner residence, Ubud, Bali • Legian Community Clinic, Bali • Lembeh Resort, Bitung, North Sulawesi
Application of WWG in Indonesia • Lumba-Lumba Diving, Manado, Sulawesi • MAP Tiwoho Community Center - Bunaken, Sulawesi • Muir/ Kusnanto Residence, Petitenget, Bali • Murex Dive Resort, Sulawesi • Padi Padi Hotel, Bali • Rama Sitha Resort, Bali • Sacred Mountain Sanctuary Resort, Sideman, Bali • Salman/Frost Residence, Bali • Sunrise School, Legian, Bali • Tirtagangga Water Palace, Karangasem, Bali • Vajra Villas, Ubud, Bali • Villa Tamu, Bali
Technology / WWG Process The system works by a gravity flow of wastewater from toilets, showers, and kitchens into a properly designed and sealed septic tanks and then into the specially engineered subsurface flow wetland cell which keeps the wastewater below the surface of the gravel, preventing odor and eliminating the risk of human contact with the sewage.
Technology / WWG Process The system normally consists of three wastewater treatment phases : • First stage is taking place in septic tank equipped with special filter, where anaerobic bacteria commence a biological breakdown of the waste, and solids settle out to the bottom of the tank.
The second stage of the treatment of Wastewater Garden is the water-tight (lined with concrete, impermeable clay or geomembrane to hold wastewater in) comprising just one compartment (cell) in small systems and more compartments in larger applications. Technology / WWG Process
Technology / WWG Process The gravel allows for adequate residence time for the wastewater and provides an enormous surface area where a wide variety of chemical, biological and physical mechanisms cleanse the wastewater by removing organic compounds, suspended solids and excess nutrients. The plants are the aerators of the system, which helps maintain a population of air-breathing microbes (aerobic bacteria) which are part of the treatment process.
Technology / WWG Process The presence of aerobic and anaerobic zones supports a wide variety of helpful organisms: bacteria, protozoa, algae and fungi (10-100 billion per 1 g of soil). These organisms uptake the nutrients from the wastewater and use them for their own life processes. There are also other mechanism for example: adsorption, decomposition, sedimentation.
The third treatment stage is discharge of the treated wastewater to a final leach field, where fruit trees or other landscape plants can utilize remaining nutrients and water, or water pond provides Technology / WWG Process
WWG Construction Process • Tank Preparation Control box configuration
WWG Construction Process • Finished tank with sand and gravel • Plantation planting
Advantages of WWG • Fecal coliform bacteria are reduced more than 99% in the wetlands, without the use of expensive, environmentally harmful chemicals like chlorine. • Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) reduced 85-90% from influent levels, and removal of nitrogen and phosphorus is substantial. • The wetlands are low-cost, low-tech and long-lived. Maintenance requirements are simple. • There is no malodor as the sewage is kept from contact with the air.
Advantages of WWG • There are no mosquito-breeding or other nuisances associated with open wastewater (e.g. sewage lagoons or surface-flow wetlands). • The possibility of accidental public contact with the sewage reduced to someone deliberately digging into the wetland gravel. • Subsurface flow wetland systems are capable of extremely high rates of wastewater cleaning. • Where higher treatment than normal municipal standards is required for special purposes, an increase in wetland area provides the equivalent of advanced water treatment.
Advantages of WWG • Significantly less wastewater (35-70% depending on design) is discharged from these special wetlands, because the plants use large quantities of water in their transpiration. • Subsurface wetlands can be exactly sized from small units for a single residence to larger areas for small city/town systems and so no surplus capacity need be paid for than is needed. On the other hand, new demands can easily be met by simple unit expansion • The sub-surface wetland systems add considerably to the landscape beauty in communities where they are used, and can also include plants to be harvested for useful or saleable products.
Disadvantages of WWG • The effectiveness of this system are less in sub-tropical zones than in tropical zones, due to the varieties of plant which could be planted and the changing seasons. • The gravel have to be renew for every ten year since the compacting process of gravel by time cause the shrinkage in gravel porosity.
Data Detailed research was conducted on the Wastewater Gardens systems constructed along the coast of the Yucatan, in southeastern Mexico, and the results critically checked by University of Florida scientists. These Wastewater Gardens systems prevented pollution damage to off-shore coral reefs, using 3-4 square meters of wetland per full-time resident. Similar treatment was also achieved in pilot program Wastewater Gardens systems in the Kimberley region of West Australia.
Data • B.O.D. Graph Data shows the excellent reduction of about 85% in the demonstration Wastewater Gardens in Mexico in the amount of organic material in the wastewater, to levels better than standard amounts.
Data • Bio Diversity Graph Data shows the high bio-diversity which can be achieved in Wastewater Gardens. In the early years it was three times that of mangrove wetland and almost equal to an adjoining tropical forest area.
Data • Phosphorus Graph Data shows the effectiveness of Wastewater Gardens in putting phosphorus to effective use by plants and natural bacteria and preventing contamination of groundwater and the environment.