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Reproductive Systems

Reproductive Systems

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Reproductive Systems

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  1. Reproductive Systems

  2. Anatomy of Female • A. Ovaries • 1. Primary sex organs of the female • 2. Produce ova (female gamete) and manufacture female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone) • 3. During the reproductive years, a single follicle in the ovary matures every 28 days with an ovum inside • 4. Reproductive ability begins with menarche (first menstrual cycle) during puberty

  3. Accessory Female Organs • Fallopian Tubes-ducts for ovum from ovaries to uterus • Uterus-discharge of menses, development of fetus, expulsion of fetus • Vagina-copulation and passageway • Vulva-fatty pads, protect internal structures, pleasurable sexual sensation • Breasts-milk

  4. Anatomical regions of uterus • Body • Cervix • Three Layers of Uterus • Perimetrium • Myometrium • Endometrium

  5. B. Ovulation • 1. Mature ovum is released (ovulation) about 2 weeks before • menstrual period begins • 2. After ovulation, the ovum travels down the fallopian tube • 3. Fertilization takes place in fallopian tube, usually within two days of ovulation • 4. Following fertilization, the zygote implants in the uterus • 5. Development of follicle controlled by FSH, ovulation caused by LH

  6. B. Fallopian tubes – smooth muscle and cilia help propel ova into • uterus • C. Menstrual cycle - Occurs every 28 days, divided into 4 stages • 1. Follicle stage – FSH from pituitary ovary, stimulates follicle with ovum to mature, releases estrogen and prepares uterine lining, lasts 10 days • 2. Ovulation stage – Pituitary stops FSH and releases LH, 14th day follicle ruptures and mature ovum released

  7. 3. Corpus luteum stage – Corpus luteum secretes progesterone. If ovum fertilized, corpus luteum continues secrete progesterone, which prevents further ovulation and maintains uterine lining, • lasts 14 days • 4. Menstruation stage – If no embryo, corpus luteumdissolves, progesterone , and uterine lining breaks down and is discharged, • 3-6 days

  8. Estrogen and progesterone-two hormones produced by ovaries. • LH and FSH are produced by pituitary gland

  9. Menopause • a. When monthly menstrual cycle comes to an end • b. Approximately age 50 • c. Symptoms include hot flashes, dizziness, headaches and emotional changes

  10. Diseases of the Reproductive System (female) • 1. Abnormal Positions of Uterus • Retroflexion-bending backward • Anteversion-fundus towards the pubis and cervix tilted up • Retroversion-turning backward, cervix pointing forward toward the symphysis pubis • retrocessed uterus: both the superior and inferior ends of the uterus are pushed posteriorly

  11. 2. Hysterectomy • Surgical removal of uterus. Sometimes it includes: fallopian tubes, ovaries and cervix. • Performed for the following reasons: • Uterine Fibroids. • Endometriosis • Cancer • Chronic pelvic pain • Heavy bleeding • PID

  12. 3. PID-Pelvic Inflammatory Disease • Most common and serious complication of STDs • Infection of upper genital area and can affect the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes. If left untreated can cause scarring and lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy or chronic pain. • Major symptoms: • Pain • Discharge • Fever • Irregular menstration • Pain with intercourse

  13. Uterine Fibroids • Benign tumors made up of muscle cells and other tissues that grow within wall of uterus. • Can grow as single or in clusters • Most common benign tumor of women of childbearing age • Cause unknown • Classified by wear they grow; • Underneath the lining • Between the muscles • Outside the uterus

  14. Women with fibroids my suffer: • Heavy bleeding • Painful periods • Urinating often • Feeling of fullness in pelvic area • Pain during sex • Low back pain • Reproductive • Treatment: • Pain medication • Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists • Anti-hormonal agents • Surgery • Myomectomy • Hysterectomy

  15. PMS • A condition that affects certain women and may cause a group of distressful symptoms • Begins approx. 2 weeks before menstruation • Believed to be caused by : • Amount of prostaglandin produced • Deficient or excessive amount of estrogen or progesterone • Interrelationship between these factors

  16. To help prevent or relieve symptoms of PMS • Eat a healthy diet, limit foods high in sodium, caffeine, alcohol and simple sugar • Aerobic exercise • Vitamins and minerals • Relaxation therapy

  17. Medications to treat pms • Antidepressants • Benzodiazepine medications • Modified male hormones • Diuretics • Hormones • Medicines that affect prostaglandin levels

  18. Lifespan of Female Reproductive System • Sex determined at fertilization • Female is born with lifetime supply of eggs • 16 weeks of gestation, sex organs visible • Puberty- Sex organs mature • at puberty the female experiences: breast development, vaginal secretions and menarche. • About 50-ovaries cease to produce estrogen and progesterone-Menopause. • Osteoporosis is common in women after Menopause

  19. Adnexa • Amenorrhea • Bartholinitis • Biotics • Cervicitis • Colposcope • Contraception • Culdocentesis • Cystocele • Dysmenorrhea • Dyspareunia • Endometriosis • Fibroma • Genetics • Genitalia • Gynecologist • Gynecology • Hymenectomy • Hysterectomy • Hysteroscope • Hysterotomy • Intrauterine device

  20. Laser ablation • Laser laparoscopy • Laser lumpectomy • Mammoplasty • Menarche • Menopause • Menorrhagia • Menorrhea • Mittelschmerz • Myometritis • Oligomenorrhea • Oogenesis • Oophorectomy • Ovulation • Perimenopause • Postcoital • Retrovaginal • Retroversion • Salpingectomy • Salpingitis • Salpingo-oophorectomy • Vaginits • venereal

  21. Conception and pregnancy • 1. Gametes are produced by gonads • a. Female gonad = ovary • b. Female gamete = ovum (ova) • c. Male gonad = testes • d. Male gamete = sperm

  22. Anatomy of Male • A. Testes • 1. Found in scrotum • 2. Size of small egg • 3. Made up of 250 lobules, each with coiled seminiferous tubules • B. Epididymis • 1. Collection of tubes above the testes • 2. Connect the testes with the vas deferens

  23. Anatomy of Male • C. Vas Deferens • 1. Runs from epididymis to ejaculatory duct • 2. Seminal vesicles connect to vas deferens • 3. Ejaculatory duct connects vas deferens with urethra • D. Scrotum – sac of skin that contains testes • E. Penis • 1. Contains erectile tissue • 2. End covered by foreskin – loose fitting skin

  24. Anatomy of Male • F. Prostate Gland • 1. Surrounds beginning of urethra • 2. Size and shape of chestnut • G. Bulbourethral glands – located below prostate

  25. Physiology of Male • A. Testes • 1. Produce male gametes (spermatozoa) • 2. Produce male sex hormone – testosterone • 3. Inside, each lobule contains coiled seminiferous tubules where sperm develop • 4. In embryo, testes formed in the abdomen and during the last 3 months, migrate into scrotum • B. Epididymis – where sperm are stored • C. Vas Deferens – serves as a passageway for sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct

  26. Physiology of Male • D. Scrotum – serves as container for testes • E. Penis • 1. Contains erectile tissue • 2. Organ of copulation • 3. Tip of penis covered with foreskin, which is often removed during circumcision • F. Prostate Gland – secretes a fluid that enhances sperm motility and adds fluid to semen

  27. Physiology of Male • G. Bulbourethral glands – add alkaline secretion to semen that helps • sperm live longer • H. Erection and ejaculation • 1. Urethra has dual role – excretion of urine and to expel semen • 2. Erection caused when erectile tissue fills with blood • 3. Ejaculation expels semen • 4. Impotence – unable to copulate (hold an erection) • I. Infertility – lack of conception due to fallopian tube damage, low • sperm count, hormone imbalance, and other disorders

  28. Endometriosis- condition in which the endometrial tissue occurs in various sites in the abdominal or pelvic cavity.

  29. Med term words • 1. Artificial insemination – semen placed into vaginal canal, usually • around time of ovulation. • 2. In-vitro fertilization – ova fertilized with sperm in laboratory, • zygote transferred to uterus • 3. Laparoscopy – tube inserted though small incision in abdominal • wall • 4. Hysterectomy – surgical removal of uterus • 5. Mastectomy – surgical removal of breast • 6. Mammogram – breast x-ray to detect tumors, usually • recommended for women over age 40 • 7. Vasectomy – male sterilization, removal of part of the vas • deferens • 8. Cryptorchidism – undescended testicle, may require surgical • correction • 9. Circumcision – surgical removal of the foreskin