UXO Migration:Frost Heave and Possible Salt/Chemical Heave of UXO Karen Henry, PhD, P.E., Task Partner George Robitaille, Technical Monitor Thomas Bernitt, CHMM, CQA,CQM, Task Lead The National Defense Industrial Association April 5-8, 2004 San Diego, CA
The Problem:Under Optimal Soil and Climatic Conditions • Frost heave (i.e., frost jacking) causes upward migration of UXO (cold regions) • Salt/Chemical heave may cause upward migration of UXO (hot, arid regions) • UXO is cleared to standard depths based on end-use • If UXO migrates to shallower depths, it will become a serious safety issue
UXO Migration StudyOverview • Frost heave (known to occur) • Chamber study • Field study • Salt/Chemical heave (possibly occurs) • Field study • Chamber study
NDCEE Specific Tasks • Assess existing data and previous studies concerning UXO frost and salt heaving. • Identify existing models. • Conduct field and environmental chamber tests to determine potential UXO migration in soil using inert UXO targets (shapes) of different sizes, placed in different orientations. These targets will be monitored continuously for movement. • Document study by collecting all UXO movement, ambient air temperature, soil moisture content, temperature, and soil water potential. All aspects will be pictorially captured.
Stakeholders • George Robitaille - Technical Monitor, U.S. Army Environmental Center (USAEC) • Dr. Femi Ayorinde, Joint UXO Coordinating Office • Chris O'Donnell, Naval EOD Technology Division • Mark McCarty, Environmental Supervisor, Ft. McCoy, WI • Dr. Karen Henry, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) • Doug Murray, Naval Ordnance Safety and Security Activity • Charles Botdorf, LPG, Yuma Proving Ground, AZ
23 Factorial DesignsResponse Measured: Movement Depth 12, 24 inches 24, 36 inches Orientation Vertical, 45° Vertical, 45° UXO 20 mm 81 mm 40 mm 2.75 inch 105 mm 155 mm
UXO Migration Field StudiesJuly 2003 - September 2004 FROST-HEAVE TESTING • CRREL, Hanover, NH • FT McCoy, WI SALT/CHEMICAL-HEAVE TESTING • Yuma Proving Ground, AZ Setting up the site at CRREL: Jack Rose (NDCEE), Dr. Karen Henry (CRREL), Larry Danyluk (CRREL), and Tom Anderson (NDCEE).
Environmental Chamber Studies • 10 freezing cycles • Four evaporation seasons • Conducted at CRREL • One meter deep water table optimizes migration chances Test chambers at CRREL
UXO Movement Will Be Correlated With: • Soil temperature • Soil moisture • Soil moisture potential • Soil type
Anticipated Long-Term Results • Increase understanding of physical processes • Can salt heave move UXO? • How much does UXO move due to frost jacking? • High-quality data for future model development or validation • Increased ability to manage risk • Assess clearance costs
Preliminary Results • Measurable movement at CRREL and YPG • One to two millimeters • No measurable movement at Ft McCoy
Acknowledgements NDCEE Executive Agent Mr. Raymond Fatz, DASA (ESOH) NDCEE Program Director Mr. Joseph Vallone, ODASA (ESOH) NDCEE Contracting Officer’s Mr. Richard Eichholtz, ODASA (ESOH) Representative
Contacts NDCEE UXO Task Technical Monitor Mr. George Robitaille, USAEC NDCEE UXO Task Manager Mr. Dick Pirrotta, CTC More information about this work: • Brad Wroolie, Project Manager, CTC Phone: (858) 674-2114 E-mail: Wroolieb@ctcgsc.org • Karen Henry, PhD, P.E., CRREL Phone: (603) 646-4188 E-mail: Karen.S.Henry@erdc.usace.army.mil • Tom Bernitt, CTC Phone: (858) 674-2106 E-mail: Bernitt@ctcgsc.org