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  1. 8 WAYS OF BEING SMART 8 Understanding the Multiple Intelligences Highly Effective Teaching ~ Sue Pearson


  3. Intelligence: Historically • France • 1904 • Psychologist Alfred Binet • Differentiate between school children who were intellectually normal and those who were inferior • Scale was designed to serve as a GUIDE for identifying students who could use extra help in school (Binet)

  4. Enter: Project Zero • 1967 • Harvard Graduate School of Education • Study and Improve education in the arts • 1972 • Howard Gardner/David Perkins • Co-directors • 1983 • Frames of Mind-Gardner

  5. Gardner views intelligence as “the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings.”

  6. Clarification #1 Gardner chooses not use the terms “strength” or “weakness” when discussing intelligences. Instead he prefers “developed ” and “less developed” as descriptors. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Illinois, April 21, 2003, p.9.

  7. Clarification #2 • Multiple intelligences involves our preferences for “giving back information ” as compared to learning styles which involves our preferences for “taking in information”. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Illinois, April 21, 2003, p.9.

  8. In other words, the various intelligences are sets of know-how; procedures for doing things. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner, 1983, p. 69.

  9. Potential isolation by brain damage. The existence of savants and prodigies/ other exceptional individuals. An identifiable core operation or set of operations. Susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system. 5. A distinctive development history, along with a definable set of 'end-state' performances. 6. Support from experimental psychological tasks. 7. Support from psychometric findings. 8. An evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility. Eight Criteria

  10. Gardner’s MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES Logical-mathematical (logic/number smart) Linguistic (word smart) Spatial (picture smart) Bodily-kinesthetic (body smart) Musical (music smart) Intrapersonal (self smart) Interpersonal (people smart) Naturalist (nature smart) EE Ch. 3 11

  11. “Intelligences are not skills; they are biological potentials which are realized to a greater or lesser extent depending upon opportunities and motivation.”

  12. Multiple Intelligences • All human beings possess all intelligences in varying amounts • Each person has a different intellectual composition • We can improve education by addressing the multiple intelligences of our students • These intelligences are located in different areas of the brain and can either work independently or together • These intelligences may define the human species • Multiple intelligences can be nurtured and strengthened, or ignored and weakened • Each individual has eight intelligences (and maybe more to be discovered) Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Illinois, April 21, 2003, p.9.

  13. Spatial (Picture Smart) Is Strong In: reading, maps, charts, drawing, mazes, puzzles, making images, visualization Likes To: design, draw, build, create, daydream, think in pictures Learns Best Through: working with pictures and colors, visualizing, using the minds eye, drawing Famous Examples: Leonardo DaVinci, Frank Lloyd Wright, Walt Disney, Georgia O’Keefe, Claude Clark

  14. Akiane Kramarik Age 8 Age 8 “I teach and they run away. I listen and they come. My strength is my silence.” Age 9

  15. Animated Movie Board Game Brochures Bulletin Board Design Collage Diorama Display Flipbook Immersions Mosaic Mural Photo Essay Political Cartoon Power point Presentation Story Cube Spatial (Picture Smart)

  16. Bodily-Kinesthetic (Body Smart) Is Strong In: touching, moving, processing knowledge through bodily sensations Likes To: move around, touch and talk, use body language, learn through movement Learns Best Through: athletics, dancing, acting, crafts, using tools Famous Examples: Sandra Bullock, Sean White, Charlie Chaplin, Gregory Hines, Roberto Clemente

  17. Being There (study trip) Body-mapping Charades Crafts Dance Demonstration Diorama Experiments Models Mural Martial Arts Pantomime Paper Mache Puppet show Role Play Bodily-Kinesthetic (Body Smart)

  18. Musical (Music Smart) Is Strong In: singing, picking up sounds, remembering melodies, rhythms Likes To: sing, hum, play an instrument, listen to music Learns Best Through: rhythm, melody, singing, listening to music and melodies Famous Examples: Leonard Bernstein, Mozart, Ella Fitzgerald, Gustavo Dudamel, Alicia Keyes

  19. Ballads Chants Composing Songs Choral Reading Creating New Lyrics Discographies Identifying Environmental Sounds Instruments Musical Performance Percussion Poems Raps Rhythms Scores Tonal Patterns Musical (Music Smart)

  20. Interpersonal (People Smart) Is Strong In: understanding people, leading, organizing, communicating, resolving conflicts, selling Likes To: have friends, talk to people, join groups Learns Best Through: sharing, comparing, relating, interviewing, cooperating Famous Examples: Mohandas Gandhi, Oprah Winfrey, Jimmy Carter, Mother Theresa,

  21. Assigning group roles Choral Reading Creating group procedures Debate Demonstration Editorial Essay Interviews Museum Exhibit Pamphlet Petition Plays and simulations Press conference Write new law Interpersonal (People Smart)

  22. Intrapersonal (Self Smart) Is Strong In: understanding self, recognizing strengths and weaknesses, setting goals Likes To: work alone, reflect, pursue interests Learns Best Through: working alone, doing self-paced projects, having space, reflection, Famous Examples: Thomas Merton, Sigmund Freud, Bill Gates, Eleanor Roosevelt,

  23. Australia Autobiography Diary Essay Family Tree Feeling masks Goal Setting Independent Study (yearlong research project) Journaling/Logs Learning Center Monologue Reflection Self-assessments Intrapersonal (Self Smart)

  24. Naturalist (Nature Smart) Is Strong In: understanding nature, making distinctions, identifying flora and fauna Likes To: be involved with nature, make distinctions Learns Best Through: working in nature, exploring living things, learning about plants and natural events Famous Examples: Jane Goodall, John Muir, Rachel Carson, Theodore Roosevelt, George Washington Carver

  25. Being Theres Collections Classifying Objects Designing Nature Trails Diorama Environment Issues Gardens Nature Calendars Photo essay Tracking Natural Events Recording Nature Sounds Science tools Scientific Drawing Star Gazing Weather reports Naturalist (Nature Smart)

  26. Verbal-Linguistic (Word Smart) Is Strong In: reading, writing, telling stories, memorizing dates, thinking words Likes To: read, write, tell stories, talk, memorize, word puzzles, journal Learns Best Through: reading, hearing and seeing words, speaking, writing, discussing and debating Famous Examples: T.S. Eliot, Shakespeare, Rabindranath Tagore, Abraham Lincoln, Maya Angelou

  27. Advertisements Comic Strips Codes Debates Diaries Editorials Interviews Jingles Letters to Editor Newspapers Oral Reports Pamphlets Poems Press Conferences Radio Programs Skits Slogans Story Telling Verbal-Linguistic (Word Smart)

  28. Logical-Mathematical (Number Smart) Is Strong In: math, reasoning, logic, problem-solving, patterns Likes To: solve problems, question, work with numbers, experiment Learns Best Through: working with patterns and relationships, classifying, categorizing, working with the abstract Famous Examples: Albert Einstein, John Dewey, Susanne Langer, Ada Lovelace, Benjamin Banneker

  29. Advertisement Annotated Bibliography Chart Collection Computer Program Detailed Illustration Experiment Family Tree Graph Maps/legend Maze Petition Prototype Recipe Survey Time Line Venn Diagram Logical-Mathematical Strategies

  30. EXISTENTIALIST INTELLIGENCE PHILOSOPHICAL LEARNER • Learns in the context of where humankind “stands” in the big picture of existence • Sensitive to BIG questions like “Why are we here?” and “What is our role in the world?” • Tackles deep questions about human existence • All education should start with this (HG) A 9th intelligence? MI:

  31. Your Turn Do you know which of your intelligences are most/least developed? Why is it important for you to understand your preferences? As the teacher, you need to provide CHOICE for your students ~ choices that honor their preferences!

  32. MI Survey Websites • > Resources > Weblinks > Multiple Intelligences • Multiple Intelligences - Pie chart • Multiple Intelligences • MI survey: for teacher/parent and child • Multiple Intelligence: Students (online)

  33. WHAT’S IMPORTANT? In the HET model, assessment is based on two questions: • What do you want students to understand? • What do you want them to do with what they understand? 36

  34. Real World TESTS of Mastery The ability to use the language of the discipline or subject in complex situations and social interactions • The ability to perform appropriately in unanticipated situations • The ability to solve real problems using the skills and concepts • The ability to show, explain or teach the idea or skillto another person who has a real need to know 37

  35. Sample Inquiry: Gr. K-1 • Research an animal that lives in our area. Illustrate the growth of your animal in its different lifecycle stages. Cut out each stage of your animal lifecycle. Exchange your animal lifecycle with a partner, sequence the lifecycle, discuss similarities and differences between your animal lifecycle and their animals lifecycle. Cut out and place your animal on the immersion wall. (V, S, BK, LM)

  36. Sample Inquiries: Gr. 2-3 • Bring 1 item from home that will fit in a lunch bag that has labels showing where it was made. Mill to music to find a partner. Share item with your partner, discuss where it was made. Record the information in your passport. As a learning club, take turns marking the location your items were made on your desk world map. Discuss the results with the class. (BK, VL, S) Lonnie B. Nelson, Columbia, SC

  37. Sample Inquiry: Gr. 4-5 • With a partner research and identify which level (local, state, federal) of government you would contact to get help with the following dilemmas: • Pothole in the road in front of your house • Speed limit on TN interstate should be reduced/increased • More money should be spent on cancer research • Record your findings on the chart in your “First Steps: A Responsible Citizens Guide” journal labeled “Where Do I Go?” Share answers with your Learning Club.(L, S, LM) Loxy Bell, Blount County, TN

  38. ASSIGNMENT ASSESSMENT • What intelligences did this assignment address? • Which students seemed most interested and intrigued? • Which students seemed disinterested? • Were there any behavior problems during the Assignment? Were these problems possibly related to an intelligence? • What other assignments could I have provided to address multiple intelligences preferences?

  39. “I can say that I do not have any interest in a test that claims it assesses one intelligence or another. I am interested in those abilities which we need to be good workers and good citizens.” ~Professor Howard Gardner, November 22, 1999~

  40. MI Resources • Exceeding Expectations: A User’s Guide to Implementing Brain Research in the Classroom, Susan J. Kovalik & Karen D. Olsen • Kagan’sMultiple Intelligences Smart Card Order from: • Email: