East Asia China, Japan, North & South Korea, and maybe even a little Mongolia
China covers a huge area—3.7 million square miles. • 3rd largest country in the world. • Varied climate and landforms. • Deserts in the north, mountains in the west, rain forest in the south. • East is mostly flat and farmable. Area has largest concentration of people in the world. • Mountains and plateaus cover about 80% of the country. • Mostly found in the west • As a result, China’s western population is scattered and many people still survive as nomadic herders. China Basics--Geography
Northeast NORTHWEST SOUTHWEST SOUTHEAST China’s Regions
The Northeast • Functions as China’s core—capital of Beijing has remained the capital for centuries • Serves as the country’s administrative and industrial center. • Region contains China’s most fertile farmland. (overlaps with Southeast) • Densely populated area—Contains 15cities with at least a population of 2 million. • Population puts considerable strain on the resources of the area, particularly water. • The major rivers of the area, the Yellow is polluted and goes dry a few months a year because of over use. China’s Regions
The Southeast • More mountainous than the Northeast because of its interior; also has a warmer climate because of its position along the lower latitudes. • Huge agricultural area. Supported by the Yangtze River—densely populated area (some areas have 5,000 per sq. mile). Home of China’s major port city of Shanghai. • Region’s population is growing even more because of Chinese governments idea of Special Economic Zones (to be explained in detail later on). Idea has worked, economies have boomed in region and with it, the population. China’s Regions
The Northwest • Area marked by 2 deserts, the Gobi and the Takla Makan. • Much less populated than eastern half of country. • Ruggedterrain—mountainous, dry—Gobi is one of driest places on earth. • Major ways of life is herding and farming. • The Southwest • Almost entire region is made up by Tibet. • Tibet used to be an independent country. • China invaded Tibet in the 1950s and took over. • Tibet is now an autonomous region—under Chinese government but has limited self-government China’s Regions
China’s current population is around 1.3 billion. • Communist government took over in the 50’s; they urged China citizens to have more babies. Government believed in safety in numbers—country could not be overrun if they never ran out of people. • Country’s population exploded; government leaders failed to see the overcrowding and food shortages that were being created. • In the 60’s, a 2-child limit was put into effect; it was not enough. • Finally in the 70’s, a 1-child limit was put into effect; a reward system was set up. By following the policy, a person could receive better housing, better job, or a pay increase. If you did not, you could expect fines, pay cuts, and loss of your home. • Policy has been successful; city-dwellers have been more adherent than those in rural areas. • Because of scarcity of water in most places, almost all concentrations of people live near water. • Example of this is China where nearly 90% of the country lives within 3 hours of the coast. • This equals roughly 1.17 billion people living all in the same area. • Eastern part of China has places with population densities greater than 2,000 people per square mile. In comparison, Oxford has around 250 people per square mile. China’s Population
92% of China’s population belongs to the Han ethnic group. • The remaining 8% is divided up among 56 smaller groups; most of these groups live in western part of China. • No matter ethnic group you may be part of, you must be able to speak Mandarin, the official language of the country. China’s Ethnicity
Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism are the most popular religions in China. • Confucianism is the most widely practiced. • China, however, is considered an ATHEIST state, meaning that the government denies the existence of a god. • China’s government believes that religion is a creation meant to keep workers submissive to the ruling classes. • Chinese people used to practice their religion in secrecy, for fear of punishment, but since the 1980’s the government has been more tolerant of religious worship. Religion in China
1. How do the 4 regions of China differ from each other? • 2. Why did China’s government push their citizens to have babies in the 1950s? What was the result? What did the Chinese government impose in the 1970s and has it worked? • 3. Why is China’s government against religion? Essential Questions
East Asia Notes, Part 2 China’s Early Empires and Buddha’s Back, Back Again, Guess Whose Back, Buddha’s Back, Tell a Friend
4. What is the Mandate of Heaven? What did it mean for both the rulers and the ruled? • 5. Although each are different, Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism all strived for the same thing. What did they all strive for? How did each philosophy try to achieve its goal? Essential Questions
There have been 18 dynasties to rule China. • In almost every case, the “new” dynasty overthrew or conquered the old dynasty. • This was the way things operated until the early 1900s. China’s Dynasties
China’s ruling families are known as dynasties; leaders are emperors. • First dynasty, the Shang dynasty, was in place by about 1600 B.C. • Dynastic rule lasted until 1911, meaning that it lasted for about 3,500 years. • Shang dynasty is credited with the creation of a written language, creation of an accurate seasonal calendar, and were among the first to shape and mold bronze for weapons and household items (pots, utensils). • Shang written language based on ideographs, which used symbols to express ideas. • Became very complex—to become literate, students had to memorize almost 10,000 characters. • Spread to all parts of Asia—Korea, Japan, Vietnam China’s Dynasties
The Zhou dynasty conquered the Shang and ruled for 800 years; this period helped to shape China for many years. • They said that they had a right to rule granted by heaven and that the people owed them their complete loyalty. • The Mandate linked power to responsibility. In exchange for loyalty, the government had to provide good government; if they failed, they could expect to lose power. • Belief lasted until the fall of the last dynasty. Mandate of Heaven
The Zhou took over around 1000 B.C. • Although they would be in power for almost 800 years, their reign would be marked by war and upheaval. • The problems began around 700 B.C. • However, the era provided China with some of its greatest thinkers and philosophers—the beliefs of Confucius, Lao Zi, and Han Feizi. Early Religion/Philosophy
Confucius was greatly upset by the disorder and suffering that he saw. • He developed his beliefs on restoring peace and harmony. • He spent his life, unsuccessfully, trying to convince those in power to stop the fighting. • He had a loyal group of followers; after his death, they collected his teachings and published them. Confucianism
To restore order, Confucius believed that 5 relationships must govern human society. They are between: • 1. Ruler and ruled • 2. Father and son • 3. Older brother and younger brother • 4. Husband and wife • 5. Friend and friend • The superior in each relationship is responsible for the well-being of the other. • With these relationships, Confucius created a guide for proper behavior based on ethics and morality. He placed the needs of society above the individual. • Above all, he stressed the importance of education. • In time, his ideas came to dominated Chinese society. Being good as a son and obedient as a young man is, perhaps, the root of a man’s character Encourage the people to work hard by setting an example yourself. Do not allow your efforts to slacken Let the ruler be a ruler, the subject a subject, the father a father, the son a son The Five Relationships
Lao Zi is the founder of Daoism. • He also searched for ways to restore order to society. • He, however, emphasized the link between people and nature. • Taoists believe that the best way to live was the natural way—rules are useless and disturbed natural order • Taoists believe that the best government was one with few rules and laws. • Many Taoist were scientific thinkers—credited with advances in astronomy, chemistry (credited with discovery of gunpowder), and biology. • Daoism’s biggest influence can be seen in the art of China. Daoism
Legalism was shaped by Han Feizi. • His beliefs shaped the beliefs of China’s early governments. • He believed that people acted out of their own self-interest. People would respond to rewards and punishment; not to Confucius ways of proper behavior. • Harsh laws imposed by a strong ruler would ensure order. Legalism
Buddhism spread to China in 1 A.D. • Buddhism appealed to the Chinese because it dealt with life after death. It promised salvation for the good and punishment for the wicked. • Many Chinese blended their Confucian or Taoist beliefs with Buddhism. Since neither Confucianism or Daoism were organized religions (although they are now both classified as one), Buddhism became the main religion in China. Buddha’s Back!
East Asia Notes, Part 3 Powerful Empires and More unwelcome visits from the British
6. The Han Dynasty brought 4 changes to China—what were they? • 7. When did China begin its period of isolationism? What 2 developments led to the loss of power when dealing with Europeans? How did the Opium War show that China’s isolationist policies were flawed? Essential Questions
As you recall, the Zhou dynasty was marked by turmoil. • The Qin dynasty took over in 221 B.C. The empire did not last very long—15 years but they had 2 major accomplishments: • 1. United the country • 2. Built the Great Wall • The Qin believed in legalist principles and imposed harsh laws on the country. They outlawed Confucianism. • After the death of the 1st emperor, the country revolted against the new leaders. After the Zhou
Took over in 206 B.C. and ruled for about 400 years. • The Han brought many changes to China: • 1. Opened up trade routes with Middle East and Europe • 2. Created a civil servant system to select government officials. Replaced old way of choosing by birth or wealth and replaced it with a system based on merit. • 3. Created the seismograph and made paper. • 4. Made medical advances—began to time pulses to diagnose illness, developed acupuncture. The Han Dynasty
The Han were followed by the Tan and Song Dynasties; China flourished during these times. • However, in the early 1200s, the Mongols led by Genghis Kahn invaded and conquered the northern part of China The Mongol Conquest
After Genghis died, his empire was divided among his sons and grandsons. • His grandson, Kublai Kahn, extended Mongol power over all of China. • Kahn, at first, tried to impose Mongol culture on the citizens but gave up when he realized the difficulty of it; eventually gave his dynasty a Chinese name, Yuan. • It was during this time that Marco Polo visited China; it was his journey that brought back such advancements as the compass, the mechanical clock, printing, and gunpowder to Europe. Mongols cont.
The Yuan dynasty began to decline in the 1300s; a peasant leader organized a rebellion and captured Beijing in 1368. • He set up the Ming dynasty which until 1644. • Ming dynasty revived Confucian ideas, built the Forbidden City, and reunited China. • They also started a policy of basically isolating China from the rest of the world. • It was a bad time to do this as European countries were beginning to develop their technologies and expand their empires. China fell behind, technologically, and it would cost them. Chinese Revival
The Last Dynasty The last Dynasty was the Qing. They invaded from the northeast region of Manchuria. Their reign lasted until 1911. They were able to expand their power into Southeast Asia. They kept Manchu culture separate from Chinese culture; laws were passed forbidding Manchu to marry Chinese and wear Chinese clothing. They did, however, keep the policy of keeping China isolated from the world.
During the early years of European exploration(1500s-1700s), China was powerful enough to “call the shots” when it came trade with Europeans. • They only allowed European ships to 2 ports and were only able to trade with certain merchants • There were 2 developments that weakened the Chinese: • 1. The Qing dynasty entered a period of decline. • 2. Industrial Revolution in Europe. Oh Crap, it’s the British at the Door.
The British were the first Europeans to demand more trade rights. • The Chinese refused to budge. • The British also began to insult the Chinese emperor when they ceased to bow. • The Opium War • Britain began to sell opium to China; soon China had a major addiction problem on their hand. • The Chinese attacked and sunk a British ship; war was on. • China was no match for Britain and was defeated quickly; the years of isolationism had caught up and British technology crushed China’s military. European Imperialism
As a result of losing the war, China was forced to open spheres of influence, which granted economic rights to foreign countries. • The U.S. got involved because they didn’t want to be left out on trading with China; they got the other European countries to agree to an “Open Door” policy which gave all countries equal access to trade with China. Spheres of Influence and the Open Door Policy
East Asia Notes, part 4 It is 10pm and I am too tired to think of a funny subtitle.
Qing Dynasty was declining and suffered from lack of support from the peasant class and from European countries continuing involvement in their country. The Taiping Rebellion—1851. Peasant revolt. Lasted 14 years. 20 million lives lost. Signaled a period in which the Qing tried to bring about social reforms—all aimed at modernizing the country and spreading wealth to the lower classes. Acceptance of western technology Sent students to western universities. Opened western-style schools The Last Dynasty—The Beginning of the End
Problem was that reforms did not move fast enough or far enough. China was simply too far behind Europe at this point. • The Chinese population sensed this and their was an increase in hostilities towards foreigners as more and more of them made way to China. • A group was formed, the Fist of Righteous Harmony, whose purpose was to harass and drive out the foreign influence. They became known as the Boxers. • They drew support from the last empress and she helped to supply the group with funds and weapons. Beginning of the End cont.
The Boxers began to attack and even kill foreigners. • Unsurprisingly, European countries used these attacks to form and army and declared war on the group. • The Boxers stood no chance and were quickly dismantled. • The last empress died in 1911; there was no one with any power to fill the void. • China declared itself a republic; from 1911 to 1928, the country was basically a mess on and on the brink of disintegrating. The Boxer Rebellion
After China declared itself a republic, Dr. Sun Yatsen was named president in 1911. • He was ousted in 1912. • Sun resettled in the South and began to assemble an army. His followers were known as Nationalists. • The general that Sun appointed was named Chiang Kai-shek. • Chiang became very popular and the Nationalist movement did as well. Nationalists vs. Communists
1925—Sun dies. Chiang takes over power of Nationalists. 1928—Chiang has brought China under his control. However, the Communist party under Mao Zedong also had organized an army and was growing in popularity, particularly among the poorer classes. Chiang began to arrest, imprison, and kill Communist party members. In response, Mao organized the Long March Year long, 6000 mile trek from S.E. China to N.W. China in which only 7,000 out of originally 90,000 survived. Even though it was a death march, Mao became a cult figure to many Chinese and once settled in the Northwest, was able to quickly regain followers. N vs. C cont.
Japan broke up the fighting between the Nationalists and Communists when they invaded the country in the 1930s. • The 2 groups actually joined together to fight against the Japanese. • Japan was able to hold onto parts of China until they surrendered in 1945. • Once the war was over, the Communists were in control in the North and the Nationalists still controlled the South. WWII
After Japanese left, the Nationalists and Communists resumed their fighting. • The Nationalists were backed by the U.S. but the Communists had been able to promote themselves as the party of the common man and were supported by a large majority of the population. • While Chiang was better equipped, Mao had organized his army into a very disciplined and skilled fighting unit. • 1949—Communists reach and take over Beijing. Chiang is forced from China and retreats to Taiwan and never returns to China again. After WWII
Mao preached to the poor; made them an invaluable part of his mission. • He promised to end the oppression of the rich and to fairly distribute land. • He also promised to throw out the imperialists and industrialize the country. • Mao was also able to win over the middle-classes by promising to end China’s humiliation at the hands of its foreign oppressors. • Mao sold the vision of a classless society in which the working class would be the only class and land, money, and prestige would be fairly and equally distributed to all. The Appeal of Communism
8. Why did communism appeal to the Chinese public? Essential Questions
East Asia Notes, Part 5 China’s Move to A World Power
Once his power was established, Mao re-wrote the constitution and put himself in power. • China became a totalitarian state—all aspects of the country—economy, media, law were under the control of Mao. • Mao was able to make himself into a “god” figure and people were taught that he had all of the answers to China’s problems. • His book, “The Little Red Book,” outsold the Bible for a number of years. • China had a lot of issues—population, food shortages, no money—and Mao struggled to fix them. Chairman Mao
Mao enacted 2 movements to address China’s problems: • 1. The Great Leap Forward • 2. The Cultural Revolution • Each was an attempt to destroy the “old” system in China where the wealthy held the power. Addressing China’s Issues
Based on collective farming and communes—peasants would pool their land, tool, and labor and work for the government. • They were expected to increase food production, build bridges, canals, and other infrastructure. • Workers were assigned jobs and, in return, provided with food, clothing, housing, medical care, child care, and schooling. • Led to disaster: • Peasants resisted giving their crops to the government and went as far as destroying them—food production fell as a result. • Since they were guaranteed jobs, many Chinese did not work very hard if at all. • There was a number of floods and droughts. • 20 million believed to have died in 3 years. The Great Leap Forward
Cultural Revolution Mao launched it in 1966 as a reaction to the criticism he was taking about the Great Leap program He felt that China needed to renew its revolutionary spirit. A group called the Red Guard was formed—they traveled the country hold rallies and attacking those who they felt were against Mao. Result—China fell into a period of chaos. Schools closed, factories ceased production—a whole generation of Chinese had their lives disrupted.
Mao passed away in 1976; a power struggle ensued between a group lead by his wife The Gang of Four) and a moderate group. • The moderates controlled the “Congress” and took power. Deng Xiaoping became the new leader. • Deng’s goals were similar to Mao’s—help China achieve power and wealth—but he stressed economic reform over class struggle gave up on a classless society). Moving on from Mao
Deng’s name for his plan was the Four Modernizations. • 1. Modernizing Agriculture— • make farming more productive through machinery and bring the country to self-sufficiency in its food supply. Also changed way farmers did business-allowed them to sell their crops for profit. Output grew rapidly. • 2. Develop science and technology • Have spent millions of dollars on education, research, and investment. China’s space program launched its first manned mission to outer space in 2003. China is also becoming a world leader in green technology The Four Modernizations
3. Expand industry— • moved industries towards consumer goods. Worked well—China became one of fastest developing countries. Will surpass U.S. as world’s largest economy if pace continues. • Created Special Economic Zones—created in the late 1970s to spur economic growth by attracting foreign investment. Set low tax rates and made it easy to operate a business to lure foreign business in. Worked very well-began with 4 zones, now over 2,000. • 4. Upgrade Military— • China now has world’s largest standing army. Modernizations continued