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AIM: What have scholars learned about the ancestors of humans, and how have they done so?

AIM: What have scholars learned about the ancestors of humans, and how have they done so?

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AIM: What have scholars learned about the ancestors of humans, and how have they done so?

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  1. Unit Essential Question: What was life like in early times, and how did it change as civilizations began to develop? AIM: What have scholars learned about the ancestors of humans, and how have they done so? Do Now: Type of Learner Survey

  2. Setting the Stage: Who are we? • Prehistory – the long period of time before people invented writing. Roughly about 5,000 years ago. • Evolution vs. Creationism **We will not take a side but simply look at what has been found.

  3. What’s the difference between creation and evolution? Informational Text As a class we will read the short text together. You will become familiar with the Critical Reading Text Assignment Sheet

  4. Understanding Our Past • Scientific Clues • Scientists work like detectives using excavated sites • Artifacts: human-made objects such as jewelry or tools • Paleontologists study fossils or evidence or early life preserved in rocks • Investigating Prehistory • Anthropology is the study of the origin, the behavior, and the physical, social and cultural developments of humans. • Archaeology a field of anthropology where archaeologists study past peoples and cultures through their material remains. • Use radiocarbon dating to determine the age of an artifact

  5. Discoveries in Africa and Beyond • Mary Leakey • Archeologist who led an expedition in Tanzania in East Africa • 1978, discovered LaetoliFootprints made by humanlike beings now called australopithecines, a hominid • Humans and other creatures that walk upright are called hominids • Lucy • Unusually complete skeleton of female hominid • Discovered by Donald Johansonin 1974 • Named after Beatles song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” • Dated to be 3.5 million years old

  6. Laetoli Footprints Lucy

  7. Studying the Historical Past • History – the record of past events. • Primary Source (eyewitness account) vs. Secondary Source (second-hand record) • Historical Dates: • Two formats: • B.C. – A.D. • B.C.E. – C.E. “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” -George Santayana

  8. Key Terms for Foundations • Culture: the way of life of a group of people (society). • i.e. – religion, clothing styles, diet, government • “Blueprint for living” • Cultural Diffusion: the exchange of cultural objects and ideas. Sometimes a cultural idea or object is adopted by a different culture. • Ethnocentrism: the belief that one culture is superior to another culture. *Not a helpful attitude and can lead to conflict and warfare! • Technology: the skills and tools people use to meet their basic needs and wants.

  9. Lucy: The Beginnings of Mankind 1. Create an annotation key as a class. 2. Individually read and annotate the primary source document.

  10. Let’s Summarize…

  11. Aim: What are the basic elements of the government and the economy? Do Now: Summarizing Baseline

  12. Activity • For your assigned government/economic system: • 1. Give an overall definition of the system. • 2. List 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages. • 3. Explain how this government is just and fair. • 4. Why is this the best type of government system?

  13. AIM: Why is it important to study geography? Do Now: Review from last class. Government groups present.

  14. Warm Up

  15. Geography • the study of the physical features of the earth and its atmosphere, and of human activity as it affects and is affected by these Physical Geography Human Geography

  16. Physical Geography Human Geography • The surface of the earth • How people adapt to a particular environment • Cartographer – map maker

  17. Five Themes of Geography • 1. Location • 2. Place • 3. Region • 4. Movement • 5. Human-Environment Interaction

  18. What does this map illustrate? Physical map- shows geographic features such as mountains, lakes, deserts etc. (mother nature)

  19. List all the geographic features you see in this picture.

  20. What does this map illustrate? Political map- shows boundaries/borders of countries (man-made)

  21. INTERPRETING MAPS 1. KEY / LEGEND - gives important information that helps to understand the map. (Ex. * represents capital city) 2. EQUATOR- 0 degree imaginary line of latitude that separates the world into a northern and southern hemisphere 3. PRIME MERIDIAN- 0 degree imaginary line of longitude that separates the world into a eastern and western hemisphere

  22. *Each group should have one member write down the answers for the group to be submitted* Activity – Geographic Features Assessment List the advantages and disadvantages of living in/by the following geographic features: mountains, deserts, tropical rainforests, rivers What would you have to do to survive in these regions? Pick which continent you think would be the ideal place to start a civilization in.

  23. AIM: How did early humans survive? Do Now: How do we know people lived thousands of years ago? Answer in 4-6 sentences.

  24. TRACING THE MIGRATION (MOVEMENT) OF EARLY HUMANS ACCORDING TO THE MAP, WHERE DID EARLY HUMANS ORIGINATE? AFRICA

  25. STANDARDS FOR BEING HUMAN: 1. 90cc skull size 2. Upright vertebrate 3. Thumb for tool making

  26. WHAT ARE THESE IMAGES & WHAT DO THEY TELL US ABOUT EARLY HUMANS?

  27. Paleolithic Era(Old Stone Age) 2 million B.C. - 10,000 B.C. • Hunting & gathering societies – everyone contributed! • *Men- hunted and fished • *Women/Children – gathered. • Nomads- people who travel (migrate) from place to place in constant search of food and water • People traveled in small groups (20-30 people) • Simple tools/weapons made of stone, bone & wood • To endure the cold, used animal skin for clothing. Went through several ice ages, used fire for warmth and cooking. • Took refuge in caves to survive the cold during long winters. Cave paintings found of animals. • Animism- belief system which involves worshipping spirits in nature

  28. Stone Age Tools

  29. Cave of Lascaux • http://www.lascaux.culture.fr/?lng=en#/fr/00.xml

  30. Title: Eviscerated Bison in Lascaux Caves

  31. Title: Traced Copy of a Rock Painting in Pahi, Tanzania

  32. Title: Clay Bison Sculptures

  33. Two female figurines from Malta, an Ice Age site in Siberia

  34. Activity: Source Analysis Directions: Analyze source #1 and source #2. Answer corresponding reflection worksheet.

  35. Let’s Summarize…

  36. AIM: How was the introduction of agriculture a turning point in prehistory? Do Now: What skills did Old Stone Age people develop in order to adapt to their surroundings to their needs?

  37. Describe the differences you see in the above pictures. Label the picture representing the Paleolithic Age and the picture representing the Neolithic Age.

  38. Turn & Talk • Does there have to be war in order for there to be a revolution?

  39. Neolithic Revolution • Around 10,000 years ago, the Neolithic Revolutionbegan: the beginning of farming • It started accidentally when some women scattered seedsnear a campsite and noticed crops growing there when they came back next season • Rising temperaturesworldwide provided longer growing seasons • Farming produces more foodthan hunting or gathering

  40. More food means a higher population, thus more labor • Due to labor and farming methods, permanent settlements developed • Permanent settlements turn into villages, villages turn into cities, cities turn into civilizations • Once you reach a certain population, you can begin specialization • Specialization: the development of skills in a specific kind of work (other than farming)

  41. Slash & burnfarming was used (cut a field and burn it for nutrients) • Domesticationor tamingof animals began as well

  42. Agriculture Revolution

  43. Group Work Fill out graphic organizer outlining daily changes from Paleolithic to Neolithic life. Each group will work on a different section of the organizer (i.e. resources) and will then present to the rest of class.

  44. Cause & Effect

  45. Let’s Summarize… • 1. What was the main difference between life in the Paleolithic period and life in the Neolithic period? • 2. How did people's lives change as they began to domesticate animals and farm during the Neolithic period? • 3. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of the changes in daily life that occurred as a result of the development of agriculture? • 4. Some historians refer to the development of agriculture as a revolution because of the dramatic effect it had on people's lives. Explain why you agree or disagree with this statement.

  46. AIM: How did the world’s first civilizations rise and develop? Do Now: Watch the video clip and answer the following question in your notebooks- What does it mean to be civilized? What argument does John Green raise concerning this and do you agree?

  47. What does it mean to be civilized? What argument does John Green raise concerning this and do you agree? • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yocja_N5s1I Link to Crash Course #1 Episode

  48. WHAT IS A CIVILIZATION??? CIVILIZATION- (1) group of people living and working together for the purpose of creating an organized society. (2) “the highest cultural grouping of people which distinguishes humans from other species” (3) “complex systems or network of cities that emerge from pre-urban culture”

  49. EIGHT BASIC ELEMENTS OF A CIVILIZATION: Writing Systems (2) Infrastructure- public works such as bridges, roads etc. (3) Government / Laws

  50. (4) Art / Architecture (5) Social Classes