Late Middle Ages WHI.12
European Nation States - France WHI.12a
Nation States In the late medieval period European monarchies consolidated power and began forming nation-states.
France • 987-1180: Hugh Capet takes the throne in France and begins the Capetian Dynasty • Capet, sons, and grandsons were weak leaders • But geographic location help strengthen France through trade • Capetian power and territory spread outward from Paris.
France • 1180-1226: Philip II (Augustus) • One of the most powerful Capetian • Gained more land (seized Normandy from King John) • Strengthens the monarchy through the use of bailiffs • Who were royal officials who collected taxes)
France – The Hundred Years’ War • 1337-1453: The Hundred Years’ War is fought between England and France over land and hereditary rights. • France loses many battles in the beginning stages of the war. • Joan of Arc rallies and unites the soldiers to stunning victories in the Battle of Orleans. • She is captured and burned at the stake as a heretic • 500 years after death, she is canonized a saint
France • The Essentials for France • Huge Capet established the French throne in Paris • Capetian Dynasty gradually expanded their control over most of France • The Hundred Years’ War between England and France helped define France as a nation • Joan of Arc was a unifying factor.
Nation-States (England) WHI.12a
England • 1066 – Battle of Hastings is fought between King Harold of England and William the Conqueror of Normandy • William the Conqueror wins and now possesses lands in France and England
England • 1154 – 1189: Henry II rules England and owns more than one-half the land in France due to his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine • This began the start of Common Law
England • 1199 – 1216: King John has the throne • He is a weak leader and barons begin rebelling against him • Barons force King John to sign the Magna Carta(Limited the kings power) • No taxation without representation • Right to a jury trial • Due process of law • Limited monarchy
England • 1272 – 1307 Edward I becomes king • Strengthens the administration and monarchy • Raised taxes to the burgesses (merchants) • Creates the Model Parliament in 1295 • Bicameral government: House of Commons and House of Lords • Provides a check on royal power • Increases the power of the nobility • Laws passed in Parliament are applied to entire country
England • 1337 – 1453 Hundred Years’ War • Fought between England and France mainly in France over land and hereditary rights. • France ultimately wins the war and pushes Britain out of France
Nation-States (Spain) WHI.12a
Spain • 1063 – Start of the Reconquista (the reconquest of Spain from the Muslims • 1400s: Muslims only hold Granada • 1469: Marriage of Isabella (of Castile) and Ferdinand (of Aragon) unifies two separate kingdoms of Spain
Spain • 1492: Granada falls to the Spanish; Spain becomes a unified country in religion (Muslim Moors are kicked out of Spain) • Inquisition courts are set up to subdue heretics • Jews and Muslims are expelled from Spain; those who stay are converted to christianity • Exploration begins with Columbus discovering the New World. Spain begins an ambitious exploration and colonization program
Spain • 1556 – 1598: Charles V rules Spain and expands the Spanish empire
Nation-States (Russia) WHI. 12a
Russia • 700s – Russia is composed of a mix of Slavic peoples. Kiev is the capital. Influenced by the Byzantine Empire including the Eastern Othodox Church and Byzantine architecture • 1200s – Mongols invade Russia • 1240 – 1480: Mongols control Russians
Russia • 1328 – 1341: the power of Russia is centralized in Moscow • 1462 – 1505: Ivan (III) the Great is considered the first czar/tsar • Ivan the Great frees Russia from the Mongols • The power is concentrated in the hands of the tsar.
The Crusades SOL:WHI.12b
The Crusades • Pope Urban II speech in 1095 started several attempts to “win back” the Holy Land from the Muslims that ended in 1291 • There was initial success of the Crusades when the Christians temporarily captured Jerusalem • Land captured were called the Crusader states (1st Crusade)
Crusades • The Crusaders’ states were vulnerable to attack • Saladin reconquered Jerusalem • Stayed in control even after the 3rd Crusade • 4th Crusade • Knights were sent to recapture Jerusalem failed, instead of gaining control of the city, they looted Constantinople
Effects of the Crusades • There is a decline in the Pope’s and Nobles’ power • Monarch’s power increased as many nobles lost land and wealth • There is a bitterness between Christians, Jews, and Muslims • Expansion in trade by the Italian cities • Increased desire for Asian goods, particularly spices with the Middle East • Weakened the Byzantine Empire
Fall of Constantinople • 1453- Muhammad II (Ottoman Turk) invades Constantinople and defeats the Byzantine Empire • Constantinople is renamed Istanbul, and becomes he capital of the Ottoman Empire • The Hagia Sophia changes from a Christian cathedral to an Islamic mosque
The Mongol Conquests • Mongols invaded Russia, China, and Muslim states in Southwest Asia, destroying cities and countryside • Created a vast empire • Very harsh rule
The Black Death WHI.12c
When in History??? • 1347-1351 • Remember- to the people of the 1300s something this devastating seemed like the world was going to end.
Spread of Disease • October 1347… the disease hit Europe most likely through trade with Asia • 1347-1351 anywhere from 25% to 50% of Europe’s population would die from the Black Death • Do you think they knew what caused it or how to cure it?
Studying a disease • When looking at a disease, you examine 4 factors • The Environment 2,3. causation and mode of transportation 4. toxicity
The environment • Population: 75 million… surplus in agriculture allowed many to move into cities, causing overcrowding • Sanitary issues: they couldn’t keep up with the growing populations • No plumbing, running water, toilets • Used chamber pots, cesspools • Water was contaminated
Causation and Mode of Transmission • Caused by the bacteria YersiniaPestis • Lives in the digestive tract of fleas • How does someone catch it? The flea bites host, the flea vomits into bloodstream, disease grows in humans, symptoms show, lastly death
Toxicity • There were different types • Pheumonic- infects the lungs. Victim would cough up blood in 3 days and enter coma. 95%-100% fatal. • Septicemic- rarest.. 100% fatal.. The body is covered in rash within hours.. Death occurs in 1 day. • Bubonic- most common.. 50%-60% fatal • Symptoms include buboes, blood clotting, purplish-black skin, urine turned black and red
What caused the Plague?? • Caused by an upset in the stars. The planets were in some unusual alignment which caused the sun to dry up the ocean, releasing toxic vapors. • Body was made up of 4 humors: yellow bile, black bile, blood, phlegm . Once someone became ill with the plague, they believed one of he humors was infected • Relied on bloodletting; lance buboes and apply plaster and herbs • Induced vomiting or used enemas to purge the body
causes • Church stated it was the wrath of God • Believed in appealing to the saints, making humble pleas and prayers were the only cure
Cause • Blame someone else.. • 350 acts of mass slaughter occurred • Muslims, Gypsies, and Jews
Prevention • Eat and drink in moderation • Stay away from marshy or low-lying areas where bad air may be • Move to the country • Bathing was discouraged • Avoid sin at all costs • carried around “posies” • Covered themselves in poop, thought smell would keep the plague away
Treatment • Drink melted gold • Swallow menstrual blood or urine of victims who survived the plague • Pierced the testicles • Placed blood from pigeons or puppies on the buboes • Magic
Impact of the Black Death • At lest 24 million people died • Manorial system ended • Scarcity of labor.. Survivors could find jobs • Church began to lose influence • The disruption of trade
Is the Plague around today? • The Black Death is NOT extinct and there is no cure, but there are vaccines • US: 100s are infected and 10 -20 people die a year • Usually where there are a lot of rats
Questions • Had people known the cause of the bubonic plague, what might they have done to slow its spread • What diseases of today might be compared to the bubonic plague? Why?
Education • During the Middle Ages, education was largely confined to the clergy. • They were the few who could read • The masses (everyday people) were uneducated • Church scholars were the ones who preserved ancient literature in monasteries in the East and West
Crusades • Interest in learning grew with the European contact with Muslims and Byzantines during the Crusades • Increase desire with Greek philophers • Muslim and Byzantine libraries housed copies of these writings.
Church Scholars • In the 1100s Christian Scholars visited Muslim libraries in Spain Question…Why were Muslim libraries in Spain?? Because Muslims invaded Europe in the Early Middle Ages only to be expelled in the Late Middle Ages