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CISA-IKAR 2004 DIAVOLEZZA

CISA-IKAR 2004 DIAVOLEZZA. PROBING FOR AVALANCHE VICTIMS. A team of instructors from ENSA *, CNEAS *, CNISAG * as well as gendarmes specialized in rescue operations from the CHAMONIX PGHM * looked into probing techniques.

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CISA-IKAR 2004 DIAVOLEZZA

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  1. CISA-IKAR 2004 DIAVOLEZZA

  2. PROBING FOR AVALANCHE VICTIMS

  3. A team of instructors from ENSA*, CNEAS*, CNISAG* as well as gendarmes specialized in rescue operations from the CHAMONIXPGHM* looked into probing techniques. After studying documents, they noticed a disparity in methods and a lack of technical justification of the choices made. Their experience on the field made them realize the notable differences between theory and practice. The approach used consisted in redefining rational methods which could be worked out and applied on a long-term basis. The choices which were made have been justified on the technical plane. They derive from the analysis of various statistics (how long and how deep people were buried beneath the snow, etc.) and the regular observation of probing squads at work. *ENSA  : École Nationale Ski Alpinisme (National skiing and mountaineering academy) *CNEAS  : Centre National d’Entraînement à l’Alpinisme et au Ski de la Police Nationale (Police mountaineering and skiing academy) *CNISAG  : Centre National d’Instruction Ski et Alpinisme de la Gendarmerie Nationale (Gendarmerie skiing and mountaineering academy) *PGHM  : Peloton de Gendarmerie de Haute Montagne (High mountain gendarmerie squad/ or mountain unit)

  4. PROBING TECHNIQUES • QUICK PROBING(1 hole for each step) • MINUTE PROBING(3 holes for each step) • PROBING with 2 holes for each step

  5. PROBING TECHNIQUES • QUICK PROBING(1 hole for each step) • MINUTE PROBING(3 holes for each step) • PROBING with 2 holes for each step

  6. QUICK PROBING Chances of surviving are increased when a quick probing is performed as soon as possible.

  7. Statistics show that people who were buried beneath the snow and who survived were in fact buried less than 2 meters deep (over two thirds of them were buried less than one meter deep). As a result, the probe may logically be driven only two meters deep in the snow, which will both save time and preserve efficiency.

  8. The grid used is 50 cm in side. This pitch was chosen after numerous tests were made with bodies (with a morphology of adults of medium height, without a bag) buried in various positions.

  9. QUICK PROBING – VICTIM with a rucksack LYING ON THE SIDE 0,50 m X X X X X X X X 0,50 m X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

  10. METHOD Starting position: The probing team forms into a line, “shoulder to shoulder”, which guarantees the lasting cohesion of the probing line and is an easy way to prevent it from breaking up. As a result, there is an average distance of 50 cm between each probing line.

  11. COMMAND: “PROBE”  The probe is driven vertically two meters deep into the snow. (In this perspective, it is to be desired that probes feature a visible depth mark)

  12. After the probing, each person lays his probe 50 cm forward, on the next place to be probed, and lays the probe on his right shoulder, waiting for the next command.

  13. COMMAND: “FORWARD” The probing line steps forward into probing position, making sure that the tip of the probe remains on the predefined spot. Feet remain on both sides of the probe until the next command: “PROBE” MARKING OUT: So as to make the zones which have been probed more visible, one needs to drive red pennants into the snow every sixth probing hole (about every 3 m) to define these zones more precisely.

  14. PROBING TECHNIQUES • QUICK PROBING (1 hole for each step) • MINUTE PROBING(3 holes for each step) • PROBING with 2 holes for each step

  15. MINUTE PROBING In case the quick probing method has failed, minute probing guarantees that no victim remains in the area probed.

  16. The probes need to be the same length and to be driven into the snow as deep as possible. Speed is no longer taken into account. A fine grid, 25 to 30 centimetres in pitch, is used for this probing.

  17. MINUTE PROBING – VICTIM LYING ON THE SIDE 0,25 m X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 0,30 m X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

  18. METHOD Starting position: The team forms into a line, “elbow to elbow”. As a result, there is an average distance of 75 cm between each probing line.

  19. COMMAND: “PROBE”  The probe is driven vertically between the feet of the person in charge of probing, then 25 cm on either side, on his own initiative.

  20. COMMAND: “PROBE”  The probe is driven vertically between the feet of the person in charge of probing, then 25 cm on either side, on his own initiative.

  21. COMMAND: “PROBE”  The probe is driven vertically between the feet of the person in charge of probing, then 25 cm on either side, on his own initiative.

  22. After the probing, each person lays his probe 25 cm forward, on the next place to be probed, and lays the probe on his right shoulder, waiting for the next command.

  23. COMMAND: “FORWARD” The probing line steps forward into probing position, making sure that the tip of the probe remains on the predefined spot. Feet remain on both sides of the probe until the next command: “PROBE” MARKING OUT: So as to make the zones which have been probed more visible, one needs to drive red pennants into the snow every sixth probing hole (about every 1.5 m) to define these zones more precisely

  24. PROBING TECHNIQUES • QUICK PROBING(1 hole for each step) • MINUTE PROBING(3 holes for each step) • PROBING with 2 holes for each step

  25. PROBING WITH 2 HOLES PER STEP Let us wonder about the efficiency of probing with a smaller team. Knowing that over 70 % of the victims freed by their friends survive, it is possible to resort to a search method with a small team in the areas where victims are most likely to be found.

  26. This technique means that the pitch of the quick probing method can be used and save time significantly as moves are limited (50 cm grid / 2 holes per step) while waiting for reinforcements.

  27. METHOD  The members of the probing line extend one arm horizontally, hand touching the next person’s shoulder. As it is a smaller probing line, the probing line leader takes part in the probing.

  28. COMMAND: “FORM INTO A LINE” The members of the probing line forms into a line with arms extended. ”PLACE THE PROBE ON THE LEFT” The members of the probing line put their probes vertically on the outer side of their left foot, waiting for the next command:

  29. ”PROBE” The members of the probing line drive their probes into the snow on the outer side of the left foot, then, on their own initiative, on the outer side of the right foot, not digging deeper than 2 metres.

  30. ”PROBE” The members of the probing line drive their probes into the snow on the outer side of the left foot, then, on their own initiative, on the outer side of the right foot, not digging deeper than 2 metres. The distance between the two probe thrusts must be 50 centimetres.

  31. After the two probe thrusts, the members of the probing line lay the tip of their probes 50 centimetres ahead of the previous left hole and wait for the next command, their probes on their shoulders.

  32. ”FORWARD” The members of the probing line step forward into probing position, making sure that the tips of the probes remain on the predefined spots, and start probing on hearing the command. The probing line leader continuously checks that the alignment and spacing of the probing line remain as they should be.

  33. CONCLUSION

  34. The person in charge of the probing and the probing line leader have full discretion to adapt the aforementioned methods to circumstances, e.g. reducing the pitch of the quick probing to search for children, or starting a second quick probing in a different, privileged area instead of making a minute probing.

  35. These methods have been proposed after observing real probing lines composed of people from various origins, from professional rescuers to professional mountaineers, including voluntary helpers especially requisitioned for the occasion. They are not revolutionary, but through a standardization of rescuing practices they lead to a real increase in efficiency on the field. THE END

  36. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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