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Fig.: 6.1

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Fig.: 6.1

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  1. thermic insulated box hot plate thickness measuring device thermo- couple specimen sensor cooling plate Fig.: 6.1 Chapter 6.1: Thermal Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  2. IR sensor + iris diaphragm signal amplifier software furnace computer furnace + power supply data aquisition specimen printer DT laser power laser supply t experimental result Fig.: 6.2 Chapter 6.1: Thermal Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  3. b a chromel area detector lid dynamic sample chamber reference platform gas purge inlet sample sample thin wall tube platform pan reference pan chromel chromel disc disc heating block base surface thermoelectric thermocouple junction chromel wire disc (constantan) constantan body alumel wire chromel wire constantan wire Fig.: 6.3 Chapter 6.1: Thermal Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  4. H H c c p p 0.5 Dc p 0.5 Dc p T T T T T a g m Fig.: 6.4 Chapter 6.1: Thermal Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  5. 5 homopolymer -1 endo Q/m (Wg ) 4 copolymer 3 ~ sample mass : ~ 5 mg -1 heating rate : 10 K min 2 purge gas : N 2 1 0 80 120 160 200 T (°C) Fig.: 6.5 Chapter 6.1: Thermal Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  6. non-reverse heat flow reverse heat flow endothermic: saturated segmentes, endo resins, asphalts exothermic: saturated segments Q/m endothermic background exo -100 -50 0 50 100 150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 T (°C) T (°C) Fig.: 6.6 Chapter 6.1: Thermal Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  7. -1 0 Q/m (Wg ) endo -20 -40 0 d 56 d -60 T = 190 °C p = 3.4 MPa -80 35 d 21 d 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 t (min) Fig.: 6.7 Chapter 6.1: Thermal Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  8. Fig.: 6.8 Chapter 6.1: Thermal Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  9. 14 EPDM 100 Dm 12 oil 10 DTG 80 8 polymer TG (%) 60 6 4 40 carbon black 2 -1 DTG (% min ) 0 20 -1 -1 ash nitrogen 10 K min air 10 K min 0 200 400 600 800 T (°C) Fig.: 6.9 Chapter 6.1: Thermal Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  10. -7 10 Dm 100 -8 10 80 H O 2 -9 10 60 C H OH ion current (A) CO 2 5 2 TG (%) -10 10 40 diethylether -11 20 10 dibutylphthalate -12 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 T (°C) Fig.: 6.10 Chapter 6.1: Thermal Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  11. 0.06 0.05 radial direction tangential direction 0.04 thickness direction 0 0.03 DL/L 0.02 0.01 0.00 -0.01 0 50 100 150 200 250 T (°C) Fig.: 6.11 Chapter 6.1: Thermal Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  12. Fig.: 6.12 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  13. sample index matching fluid measuring prism light beam Fig.: 6.13 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  14. Becke - line 20 µm Fig.: 6.14 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  15. isochromatic line isoclinic line 50 mm Fig.: 6.15 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  16. zero order red 1 red 2 red 3 red 4 20 mm Fig.: 6.16 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  17. gate edge filter color red blue green orange 1.0 -3 Dn  (10 ) 0.5 0.0 0.0 12.5 25.0 37.5 50.0 62.5 75.0 r (mm) Fig.: 6.17 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  18. a b gate gate static joint line 20 mm 40 mm Fig.: 6.18 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  19. axis ejector pin-points Fig.: 6.19 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  20. holes 50 µm Fig.: 6.20 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  21. 150 µm Fig.: 6.21 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  22. a b 20 µm Fig.: 6.22 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  23. 10 µm Fig.: 6.23 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  24. directed dispersed diffuse Fig.: 6.24 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  25. light beam polymer filler pigment Fig.: 6.25 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  26. a a 1 2 1 3 1 – illumination equipment 2 – specimen 3 – measuring equipment 2 Fig.: 6.26 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  27. 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.85 0 G/G 0.80 0.75 PP PP/EPR copolymer PP + 40 wt.-% talc 0 100 200 300 400 500 trickled sand (g) Fig.: 6.27 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  28. a b b 1 R a 2 50 µm a Fig.: 6.28 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  29. y 520 530 0.8 540 510 550 0.7 560 0.6 570 500 580 0.5  f 590 K 0.4 600 E 610 630 0.3 490 650 700 485 0.2 480 0.1 470 460 0 380 440 x 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Fig.: 6.29 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  30. 2 3 1 4 20 µm 1 – matrix 2 – glass-fiber 3 – inclusions 4 – cavities Fig.: 6.30 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  31. a b 50 µm Fig.: 6.31 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  32. 20 µm Fig.: 6.32 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  33. fixed mirror moving mirror globar displacement x spectrum beam splitter repley sample -1 wave number (cm ) interferogram interference intensity PC detector discrete Fourier transformation -1 mirror feed (mm s ) Fig.: 6.33 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  34. 100 90 CH 3 O CH CH 80 3 2 70 C O CH 3 60 T (%) 50 40 30 C O C 20 CH (C H) 3 deformation vibration 10 POM CH 2 PE-LD 0 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 -1 n (cm ) Fig.: 6.34 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  35. a b c Fig.: 6.35 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  36. a b 10 µm Fig.: 6.36 Chapter 6.2: Trempler, J.: Optical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  37. s (S cm ) -1 PAC 6 10 Cu PPV Fe 4 10 PANI PPP PTH conductor PPY 2 10 0 10 -2 10 n NH -4 Si 10 semiconductor N n n -6 H 10 -8 10 n S -10 10 n n -12 10 nonconductor PVC, PA -14 10 PE -16 10 PS PTFE -18 10 Fig.: 6.37 Chapter 6.3: Schönhals, A.: Electrical and Dielectrical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  38. e ’’ b a d D (t) e * E (t), D (t) t E (t) d e ’ Fig.: 6.38 Chapter 6.3: Schönhals, A.: Electrical and Dielectrical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  39. 1 V 3 2 A 1 – ground electrode 2 – measuring electrode 3 – guard-ring electrode d – diameter of measuring electrode g – width of guard gap h – specimen thickness 1 h 2 3 g d Fig.: 6.39 Chapter 6.3: Schönhals, A.: Electrical and Dielectrical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  40. 18 19 1 0 10 a b PE PP 17 1 0  (W cm)  (W cm) 16 18 1 0 10 D D 15 1 0 14 17 1 0 10 0 400 800 1200 300 320 340 360 380 measuring time (s) T (K) Fig.: 6.40 Chapter 6.3: Schönhals, A.: Electrical and Dielectrical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  41. 1 V 3 2 A 1 – ground electrode 2 – measuring electrode 3 – guard-ring electrode d – diameter of measuring electrode g – width of guard gap h – specimen thickness 1 h 2 3 g d Fig.: 6.41 Chapter 6.3: Schönhals, A.: Electrical and Dielectrical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  42. b a R HI R I V A V LO Fig.: 6.42 Chapter 6.3: Schönhals, A.: Electrical and Dielectrical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  43. = 2  f w p p e S ’’ ’ log e e De= ee ¥ S e ¥ 0 0 log (w/w ) p Fig.: 6.43 Chapter 6.3: Schönhals, A.: Electrical and Dielectrical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  44. b a 10 conductivity 1 electrode polarisation 8 b relaxation 0 log e‘‘ g relaxation 6 -1 log e‘ a relaxation b relaxation -2 4 a relaxation -3 2 -1 0 -1 1 0 200 1 2 200 2 250 3 250 log (f (Hz)) 3 300 4 log (f (Hz)) 300 4 350 5 350 5 T (K) 400 T (K) 400 6 6 Fig.: 6.44 Chapter 6.3: Schönhals, A.: Electrical and Dielectrical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  45. O ) O CH CH O C 2 2 n ( C -1.8 O -2.0 log tan d -2.2 -2.4 -2.6 * b b a 3.1 3.0 ’ e 2.9 2.8 f = 1 kHz 2.7 200 300 400 500 T (K) Fig.: 6.45 Chapter 6.3: Schönhals, A.: Electrical and Dielectrical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  46. 0.60 293.2 K 303.2 K 313.2 K 0.45 353.2 K 333.2 K e“ 0.30 0.15 0.00 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 log (f (Hz)) Fig.: 6.46 Chapter 6.3: Schönhals, A.: Electrical and Dielectrical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  47. -0.6 372.5 K -0.8 279.3 K 390 K -1.0 log e“ -1.2 -1.4 -1.6 HN - model function , , measured data -1.8 - 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 log (f (Hz)) Fig.: 6.47 Chapter 6.3: Schönhals, A.: Electrical and Dielectrical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  48. log (f (Hz)) log (f (Hz)) p p a b 5 PET 8 a relaxation, 4 semicrystalline PET 6 b relaxation, 3 amorphous PET 4 a relaxation, PDMS 2 amorphous PET poly(dimethyl siloxane) 2 1 T g relaxation, b semicrystalline PET 0 0 VFT equation measured data -1 -2 VFT equation Arrhenius equation -2 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 2 3 4 5 -1 -1 1000/T (K ) 1000/T (K ) Fig.: 6.48 Chapter 6.3: Schönhals, A.: Electrical and Dielectrical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  49. 1 10 carbon black content (wt.-%) 0.1 -1 10 0.075 0.050 0.030 -3 0.020 10 0.015 0.0125 -5 10 -7 10 -9 10 s‘ (S cm ) -1 0.010 -11 10 2 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 f (Hz) Fig.: 6.49 Chapter 6.3: Schönhals, A.: Electrical and Dielectrical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition

  50. -3 10 T (K) 295 -4 10 285 262 -5 250 10 236 -6 10 223 s‘ (S cm ) -1 210 -7 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 f (Hz) Fig.: 6.50 Chapter 6.3: Schönhals, A.: Electrical and Dielectrical Properties. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition