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COLD WAR

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COLD WAR

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  1. COLD WAR

  2. Worst genocide • Others • Armenian Genocide (by Ottomans) 1915 • Cambodia • By Pol Pot (Communist) • Extermination of middle class • Stalin’s Soviet Union (Purges)? • Rwanda • Hutus killed Tutsis

  3. Recovery after WWII • Germany split into occupation zones • Marshall Plan

  4. Development of Cold War • “Iron Curtain dropped over Europe” --Winston Churchill 1946 • Two superpowers • Two hostile camps (polarizing) • No common enemy

  5. Berlin Blockade • Germany and Berlin split • Capitalism in Stalin’s territory • Stalin called blockade of West Berlin • Berlin Blockade 1948 • Blocked rail and roads • West flew in supplies (Berlin airlift) • Everyday for a year • Stalin called off blockade

  6. Asia • China communist in 1949 (Mao Zedong) • Policy of containment • Korea was Japan’s in war (allies split) • Soviets in north • U.S. in south • Dividing line 38th parallel • With backing of China, north tried to unify country under communism • Korean War • 1950 – 1953 (same dividing line after war)

  7. Sun Yat-sen Chiang Kai-Shek

  8. Pacts • NATO • (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) • 1949 • First time the U.S. has promised safety of other countries outside their own hemisphere • Pact to combat communism • Warsaw Pact (1955) • In response to West Germany joining NATO

  9. NATO and Warsaw Pact Boundaries

  10. 1953 Stalin died • Stalinism bigger than the man • Slowly died off • Placed in tomb next to Lenin • 1956 Khrushchev came to power • Secret speech • About crimes of Stalin • Got Khrushchev into power and started de-Stalinization

  11. China really liked Stalin • Never de-Stalinized • Mao hated Khrushchev • Khrushchev (1959) no longer supported Atomic power in China • Khrushchev did like Kennedy • Hated Nixon (kitchen debate)

  12. Khrushchev Years • 1950s and 1960s • Thaws and Freezes • Thaws • Peaceful coexistence • Some free speech • Stalin out of Cult of personalities and buried in concrete tomb

  13. Freezes • Vienna Summit 1961 • Kennedy sought to end areas of conflict in third world • Khr. Offended • Spreading Communism was a fundamental goal of USSR • Comintern • Cuba 1959 • Fidel Castro and Ernesto Che Guevara • Berlin Wall • West Berlin thriving (East not so much) • Wall constructed 1961 • Keep the working age people in • Guards with shoot-to-kill orders

  14. 1961 The Berlin Wall

  15. Cuba • Went communist in 1959 • Overthrew a U.S. backed dictator • Bay of Pigs disaster • Khrushchev put missiles in Cuba (near Florida coast) • Americans had missiles in Turkey • Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 • Had to show Chinese he was tough • Relations with U.S. were improving – seen as weakness by Chinese

  16. Cuban Missile Crisis backfired • Quarantine • Reaction, but no communication • Khrushchev blinked first • Nuclear subs

  17. Cuban Missile Crisis • So close to abyss • Scared them • Détente • Nuclear arm test ban • Direct phone line from Kremlin to Washington • Both sides still hated each other

  18. Eastern Europe heard about secret speech • Hungary and Czechoslovakia wanted out of Moscow’s thumb • Put down revolution harshly • Prague Spring 1968 • A lot of people turned against USSR as a result of Eastern Europe Youth revolt

  19. Prague Spring 1968

  20. Differing Perspectives! • USSR behavior based on culture • 1.) Russia has always been an empire • Forced to develop into a modern nation state • 2.) Russia felt they had a sacred place in the world • Tsarism • Religion (only untainted Greek Orthodox and true Christianity) • Moscow was third Rome • Felt they saved the world three times • Mongols, Napoleon, Hitler

  21. Differing Perspectives! • USSR on the defensive • Stalin • Thought U.S. would be isolationist • Got defensive when they did not • Also did not like the death of FDR and Churchill’s not getting reelected • Felt atomic bomb on Japan was blackmail • Soviets forced into arms race • Atomic bomb 1949 (despite 20 million+ WWII deaths) • Second revolution from above • Hydrogen bomb 1952

  22. Differing Perspectives! • USSR on the defensive • Stalin • In Eastern Europe needed friendlies • Tried to get all of Germany (failed and prompted NATO) • Saw Marshall Plan as a major threat • U.S. forced capitalism on Europe (esp. Western Germany) • Khrushchev • U.S. containing communism • USSR contained capitalism • Supported decolonization and anti colonialism • Also had to deal with China

  23. Marshall Plan

  24. Brezhnev Years • Leonid Brezhnev takes over for Khrushchev • (r. 1964 – 1982) • Stability, no mass terror • Era of stagnation • Life was predictable/stable • Life was fine (you might actually get a car!) • State subsidized everything • Employment guaranteed • Underneath is a completely stagnant economy

  25. Vietnam • Japanese imperialism in WWII made it tough for Europeans to come back • Japan recognized native governments • Left weapons behind • French come back • Ho Chi Minh left in power • Fought French (who pull out in 1954 to concentrate on Algeria) • Left behind split Vietnam • Communist north • Western oriented south

  26. Vietnam • Elections in Vietnam • US made sure Ho Chi Minh was not elected • Supported south • 1965: 184,000 troops • 1968: 500,000 troops • 1968: turning point • Tet offensive • Growing anti war sentiment in US • Nixon elected • Escalated • Spread into Cambodia and Laos

  27. Vietnam • 1973 Ceasefire • 1975 Vietnam is unified • Cambodia’s leader deposed • Pol Pot took over (communist) • Khmer Rouge • Genocidal and anti-education • US supported since he was anti-Vietnam

  28. Brezhnev Years • 1979 – USSR invaded Afghanistan • Communist party took over in Afghanistan • Making it an internal affair, not an aggressive act • Too harsh  fierce backlash • Brezhnev Doctrine • If a communist regime is in trouble, the USSR will intevene

  29. Russian Invasion! • USSR sent troops to aid Afghan communist party • Could not win or get out (like Vietnam)  ended in 1988 • West interpreted as deliberate aggression of Soviets • Boycotted Olympics in Moscow 1980

  30. Mikhail Gorbachev • Became General Secretary 1985 • 1985-1987 tentative reforms • 1987 High reform • 1989-1991 Decline and fall • Perestroika (restructuring) • Glasnost (openness) • Wanted limited reform

  31. Gorbachev • Good diplomat • Impressed Thatcher and Reagan • Chernobyl • April 1986 • Did not talk about it until later • Showed limits of glasnost

  32. Gorbachev • Perestroika • Democratization • Room for opponents in one party system • 1989 actually free elections for legislature • candidates who stood unopposed lost elections • People saw elections were fair and showed up

  33. Boris Yeltsin • Boris Yeltsin ran a campaign against corruption • Televised debates • Party lost control of media • Yeltsin elected president of Russia (not Soviet Union) • Other states pushing for autonomy • Berlin Wall came down 1989 and Germany reunited soon after • Hardline communists arrest Gorbachev 1991 • Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine claim that the USSR is dissolved • Gorbachev resigned Christmas 1991

  34. Fall of Soviet Bloc in Eastern Europe • Two years earlier • When East Europe calls for autonomy, they are no longer crushed • Hungary opens up borders • Influx of western goods • 1989 Berliners tear down wall • Mostly peaceful • Romania • Yugoslavia • Tito

  35. Post Communism • Massive inflation • Massive organized crime