Transitional Economy • Is an economy which is changing from a centrally planned economy (Command) to a free market (Market or Mixed). Centrally Planned Government and private ownership of economic resoures split rather evenly Government ownership of economic resources and state planning Mostly private (individual or business) ownership of economic resources
Transitional Economy • Transition economies undergo economic deregulation / liberalization, where market forces set prices rather than a central planning organization (gov’t) and trade barriers are removed, privatization of government-owned enterprises and resources, and the creation of a financial sector to facilitate the movement of private capital.
From Command to Market/Mixed Economy • Since 1980s, Less Developed or Command economy countries began to see limitations of centrally planned economies • Why? Central planning failed to: • Create economic value • Provide incentives • Achieve rapid growth • Satisfy consumer needs
Economic Systems in Transition • The shift toward a market-based economic system involves: • Deregulation/Liberalization – involves removing legal restrictions on the free play of markets, the establishment of private enterprises, and the manner in which private enterprises operate. lowering trade barriers that had shut off contact with the price structure of the world's market economies. • Privatization - transfers the ownership of state property into the hands of private individuals
3. Legal system - that protects property rights and the machinery to enforce that system 4. Macroeconomic stabilization: primarily the process through which inflation is brought under control and lowered over time, after the initial burst of high inflation that follows from liberalization and the release of pent-up demand. This process requires discipline over the government budget and the growth of money and credit (that is, discipline in fiscal and monetary policy) and progress toward sustainable balance of payments.
From Command to Market/Mixed • More on privatization (sale or transfer of government owned business to private individuals) • Can sell business to one owner • Sell shares in business (stock market) • Privatization means only profitable business will continue to operate. • Means secure life long employment for some is over because competition weeds out the weak
Obstacles to Transition • Lack of Managerial Expertise • Money Shortage for Investment • Environmental Degradation • Cultural Adjustment • Workers need to develop a different work ethic based on incentive to influence labor! • Not just meet quota, everyone paid the same…. • You changed the rules!!
Other Issues in Transition • The Legal System and Government • Establishment of a legal system protecting property rights • Laws that ensure the transfer of property • Law and order prevent criminals and government from interfering with the day to day business of the economy • Laws need to provide a framework of regulation
Russia in Transition • Operated under a staunchly communist / command system for about 75 years • Underwent a rough transition of simultaneous economic and political reform • But government tax revenues are increasing and foreign investment is returning • Challenges include developing managerial talent and fostering political and social stability
Russia in Transition • By 1992 government lifted price controls, prices tripled • Wealth was unevenly distributed and organized crime and corruption infiltrated society and the economy • Financial aid from the World Bank and the IMF was mismanaged and not used efficiently • Recently Russia has started to tap into their vast oil, natural gas and mineral resources to sell on the world market
Other Countries (In Transition) • BIG 3: • Russia • China (Communist Gov’t / Mixed Economy) • India (Central Control / Mixed Economy) • Also Cuba is a slower/ smaller scale example. • China and India considered by many as the new Economic Powerhouses.