Southern Hemisphere • Australia, NZ, SA. • Colonized at about the same time, early 19th cent. • So only 200 yrs; time of independent evolution 150 yrs.
Southern Hemispherebasic points 1 Changes that occurred in Eng after the American colonization but before the S-Hemi colonization: a R-Dropping (North) b BATH Broadening (South) c Diphthong Shift(South)
Southern Hemisphere a R-Dropping b BATH Broadening c Diphthong Shift. NB: These developments were not completed in Britain at the beginning of the period (and are not completed now) Parallel development? British prestige influence?
Southern Hemisphere • Loss of r was not as widespread at the beginning of the 19th century as it is now; and large numbers of colonizers from rhotic areas - SW England, Scotland, and particularly Ireland (rebels). ButtS.Hemisphere is non-rhotic throughout • BATH Broadening was essentially a Southern British development, not Northern British. • Diphthong Shift was not advanced in the early period : parallel development since.
Southern Hemispherebasic points 2 • Little or no T-glottaling, so this is a later change in BritEng. • L-Vocalization seems fairly common in Aus - parallel development?
Southern Hemispherebasic points 3 • Front Vowel Raising: TRAP DRESS KIT
Front Vowel Raising:TRAP and DRESS Raising So what happens to FLEECE? Aus: KIT Raising
So what happens to FLEECE?
Front Vowel Raising:KIT Raising NZ: KIT Centring
Front Vowel Raising:KIT Raising SA: KIT Split
Australia • homogenous: Perth in the W and Sidney in the E - 3000 kilometers between them - are virtually the same. In this respect like Canada. • Social and stylist varieties rather than geographical (unlike Canada)
Australia W3 593°: "carries forward trends already present in popular accents of the SE of England in the early 19th cent, but allowed to develop more rapidly and thoroughly as a consequence of being freed from the omnipresent restraining influence of RP."
Australia Differences from Cockney: • T-Glottalisation and L-Vocalization (Wells) have occurred SINCE in SEng urban accents • TRAP & DRESS raising Similarities: Very similar Diphthong shifts.
Diphthong Shift: repeat (Melchers and Shaw call this “Wide Diphthongs”) Initial simplification: RP London paint pint point Earlier (talking) slide on Diphthong Shift from Week 1 http://www.hi.is/~peturk/KENNSLA/87/VARS/DiphShift.html
Australia Varieties: CULTIVATED - GENERAL – BROAD • Cultivated: little or no Diphth Shift • General: Diphth Shift • Broad: Diphth Shift + extra length of first mora.
Australia Varieties: CULTIVATED - GENERAL – BROAD • Cultivated: little Front Vowel Raising • General: Front Vowel Raising • Broad: strong Front Vowel Raising
Aus vowels summary • Raising of front vowels: squashing æ e and i up together. More so in Broad varieties • Drag-chain result: fronting of STRUT towards [a] (also London) • Fronting of GOOSE, START and NURSE
Aus vowels summary • NEAR-SQUARE Merger
Aus vowels summary • Weak Vowel Merger chatted and chattered - distinct in RP, homophones in Aus
Aus consonants summary • T-Voicing is variable; • not as strong as Gen Am; • not clear whether there is a loss of opposition in latter - ladder
Aus consonants summary • “No L-Vocalisation” (Wells) ?? No clear l- Dark l distinction; Wells: l tends to be 'pharyngealized' in all positions, rather than velarized: Wells quotes blade, telephone, happily.
Aus • Broad speakers: more rhythmic, slower (Wells)