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ideologies

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ideologies

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    1. Ideologies Ideologies are not static or set in stone. They respond to political events, as much as they affect political events.

    2. History of modern ideologies Classical liberalism rose in the Enlightenment. Important thinkers: John Locke Adam Smith de Montesquieu Rousseau The framers of the Declaration of Independence and, later, John Stuart Mill The U.S. is a classical liberal democracy.

    3. Ideologies, continued Conservative thought arose in response to the excesses of the French Revolution of 1789. Important thinker: Edmund Burke. In the U.S., conservative thought also blended with classical liberalism.

    4. Ideologies, continued In the 19th century, socialism, communism and anarchism were responses to the economic distresses brought by industrial capitalism.

    5. Ideologies, continued Fascism and its most extreme form, Nazism, developed in the early 20th century as a reaction against the perceived failings of liberalism, conservatism, socialism and communism.

    6. Ideologies, continued New ideologies emerge in response to new needs. Developing out of (and in reaction to) liberalism in late 20th century were: Environmentalism Postmodernism Feminism

    7. Classical liberalism key ideas Human beings are rational and equal Small & limited government is best Government rules with the consent of the governed Individual rights important: tolerance of dissent & freedom of conscience free marketplace ideal of political equality & democratic process

    8. Why is the U.S. considered a classical liberal government? Key classical liberal ideas appear in the founding documents, particularly the Declaration of Independence.

    9. Liberalism in the Declaration of Independence All human beings are created equal. Ideal of political and legal equality. They are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, among them life, liberty & the pursuit of happiness. Governments are instituted to protect those rights. Government derives its powers from the consent of the governed. Political authority is in the people, acting through representatives. When a government becomes destructive of those rights the people have a right to alter or abolish it. When a long train of abuses and usurpations... evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security.

    10. Absolute despotism once had to be accepted Before classical liberalism, the dominant idea was that God created political society, not people. Monarchs ruled through divine right. If people suffered under a bad king, it was Gods will. Disobeying a bad king was a sin; killing a bad king was regicide. Therefore, people had a duty to accept and obey (view of Robert Filmer).

    11. John Locke View of the state of nature (pre-civil society) Human beings are rational, free & equal. They are capable of running their own lives. They have rights to life, health, liberty and possessions that no one should harm. Yet there are no mechanisms (no police, no courts, etc.) to ensure that the strong do not prey upon the weak.

    12. John Locke, continued To secure their rights, therefore, people give up some freedom and form government. The governments purpose is to protect rights. It is a type of contract. The people retain their sovereignty, and the government is just a mechanism to help them. The individual is superior to the government.

    13. John Locke, continued If government fails to protect those rights and becomes tyrannical, then the contract is null and void. The government loses its legitimacy, and people are free to make a new government. [The Second Treatise on Government] Called a right of revolution.

    14. Adam Smith His famous work, The Wealth of Nations, provides the theoretical basis for capitalism. What makes him liberal?

    15. Adam Smith, continued The emphasis on rationality, the ability of individuals to make decisions to advance their own self-interest. The idea that government should leave people alone to make their own economic choices. In fact, individual selfish choices would serve the common good through the invisible hand of the market.

    16. Locke & Smith on Equality Their view was that people in the state of nature are equal in their rights, but not in their talents or their wealth. Economic inequality is not necessarily unfair, since it is based on peoples free choices. Freedom to make choices is a higher value than equality.

    17. Evolution of liberalism The result was laissez faire capitalism. Terrible economic & social conditions for workers, including children. Government powerless to act. Led to rethinking liberalism. A good society might need more than right procedures. It also needed certain outcomes.

    18. Evolution, continued The philosophy of Utilitarianism emerged. Governments should pursue policies that create the greatest good (or utility) for the greatest number of people. This utility calculation would provide a rational guideline for government policy.

    19. Further developments After utilitarianism (which never caught on in the U.S.), liberalism developed into Social Justice or Modern Liberalism. Modern liberalism is not fearful of government power. Instead, government power can be a force for good, limiting the worst conditions of poverty, illiteracy, racism, exploitation, etc. The basis of progressive or liberal politics in the U.S.

    20. A different view of freedom T.H. Green (1836-1882) Freedom means the ability as well as the right to do something. Expansive liberty. Two types of freedom: Negative freedom: freedom from government intervention (e.g., Bill of Rights). Positive freedom: freedom requires government to intervene in social & economic spheres (e.g., education, health care, housing).

    21. A different view of freedom Government responsible for creating the conditions for freedom. This view implies an active and interventionist government. Example in text about an unemployed and homeless woman named Mary Smith. Classical liberals would consider her free because government does not restrain her. But is she really free to make rational choices? (p. 97)

    22. An activist view of government Jane Addams (1860-1935) Founded Hull House to serve the poor in Chicago in 1889. Pushed for laws to improve working and living conditions for the poor. Promoted government action in education, better sanitation, & womens right to vote.

    23. Evolution to modern liberalism Key thinker: J.S. Mill (1806-1873) He worked also with his wife & intellectual partner Harriet Taylor Mill (1807-1858)

    24. John Stuart Mill, On Liberty English political theorist Wrote this book in 1859 Also wrote a book in favor of womens rights He is considered a bridge between classical liberalism and modern liberalism

    25. John Stuart Mill The most influential English-speaking philosopher of the 19th century. His views are of continuing significance, and are generally recognized to be among the deepest and certainly the most effective defenses of a liberal political view of society. The overall aim of his philosophy is to develop a positive view of the universe which contributes to the progress of human knowledge, individual freedom and human well-being. From the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

    26. Harriet Taylor Mill A British social and political philosopher and the great love of John Stuart Mill, whom she married toward the end of her life. She was especially interested in women's rights and co-authored with Mill the long essay Subjection of Women in 1869, a powerful defense of gender equality. Mill credited her with making major intellectual contributions to many works published in his name, and even with having been intimately involved in the composition of some of his most important works. From the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

    27. On Liberty Mill argues that diversity in ideas and in conduct is a good thing, one that society ought to encourage, not discourage. He especially defends freedom of thought and discussion. "We can never be sure that the opinion we are endeavoring to stifle is a false opinion, and if we were sure, stifling it would be an evil still."

    28. The value of freedom of thought The opinion may be true. We are not infallible. The opinion may be partly true, and the truth can only emerge after free and full debate. The opinion may be false, but debate is still valuable because it keeps our views from becoming dead dogma or rigid biases.

    29. On Liberty Throughout this book, Mill exhibits a deep concern with tyranny, both political and social. What is social tyranny?

    30. On Liberty The tyranny of the prevailing opinion and feeling, ... the tendency of society to impose... its own ideas and practices as rules of conduct on those who dissent from them, ... to prevent the formation of any individuality not in harmony with its ways.

    31. Social tyranny & conformity The individual has a sovereign right over his or her self, body and mind, a right to be free of societal interference in our lives. Does that mean that society can NEVER interfere in our choices? If not, when can it? What is the guiding principle?

    32. From On Liberty The sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively... in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self-protection."

    33. From On Liberty Society can interfere, but for one reason only: to stop harm to others. Society may protect itself and other individuals. But society may NOT interfere in order to protect us from our own bad choices. So, is does a behavior affect others? Or only ourselves?

    34. Can society interfere? 1. A 75-year old man who is slowly and painfully dying of cancer decides to end his life. 2. An NMSU student reads Mein Kampf and thinks that Adolph Hitler had some great ideas. 3. Two adult gay men decide to set up a home together.

    35. Can society interfere? 1. A 75-year old man who is slowly and painfully dying of cancer decides to end his life. NO 2. An NMSU student reads Mein Kampf and thinks that Adolph Hitler had some great ideas. NO 3. Two adult gay men decide to set up a home together. NO

    36. Can society interfere? 4. That NMSU student who likes Hitlers ideas organizes an anti-Semitic rally outside the home a local rabbi at 2 a.m. Can society interfere, according to Mill?

    37. Can society interfere? YES Why? A. In conduct, the individual must not make himself a nuisance to other people. B. This conduct might lead to an act of violence. Mill gave the example of publishing the view that corn dealers starve the poor, which is a protected activity, versus a speech before an excited mob outside the home of a corn dealer, which is not.

    38. Can society interfere? 5. A 14-year-old decides to drop out of school in order to get a job. Can society interfere? Why or why not?

    39. Can society interfere? 5. A 14-year old decides to drop out of school in order to get a job. YES Why? People who are under the legal age of adulthood are excluded; society may regulate them for their own good.

    40. Can society interfere? 6. Two men are boating on Elephant Butte without life jackets. 7. Two men are boating on Elephant Butte without life jackets and they are drinking heavily. 8. The two men are now on shore, somewhat sober. One man, who cant swim, slips into the water and drowns. The other man just stands and watches.

    41. Can society interfere? 6. Two men are boating on Elephant Butte without life jackets. NO 7. Two men are boating on Elephant Butte without life jackets and they are drinking heavily. YES. WHY? 8. The two men are now on shore, somewhat sober. One man, who cant swim, slips into the water and drowns. The other man just stands and watches. YES. WHY?

    42. Can society interfere? 7. Two men are boating on Elephant Butte without life jackets and they are drinking heavily. THEY POSE A RISK TO OTHERS 8. The two men are now on shore, somewhat sober. One man, who cant swim, slips into the water and drowns. The other man just stands and watches. WE ARE ACCOUNTABLE FOR OUR FAILURE TO ACT TO STOP HARM.

    43. Mill and Foreign Policy Would Mill have agreed with U.S. military intervention to throw out a dictator and help establish a democracy?

    44. Mill and Foreign Policy I am not aware that any community has a right to force another to be civilized. So long as the sufferers by the bad law do not invoke assistance from other communities, I cannot admit that persons entirely unconnected with them ought to step in... So probably NO [depends on the meaning of invoke assistance.]