ideologies n.
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  1. Ideologies Definition: • The term used to identify a person’s political paradigm, which acts as a frame of reference for political decision making.

  2. Paradigm Definition: • A pattern of ideas, beliefs and values that act as criteria for decision making. It helps people understand reality. Ideas – thoughts or opinions. Beliefs – what you feel is right or true. Values – things that you hold in high regard.

  3. Political Ideologies • Over time, people develop patterns of basic beliefs about a variety of issues. • These patterns of beliefs are ideologies. • They become the basis for deciding what is important and worthwhile in decision making.

  4. The Three Types of Society • Sovereignty – the power to make and enforce decisions about any matter as long as you are recognized to be able to do so. Ex. Government • Monism – believes there is only one world view that contains the truth. Ex. Hitler and the Nazi Party. • Pluralism – accepts different world views with different morals and values of the people. Ex. Canada

  5. Ideologies Political Spectrum • In politics, ideologies are classified using the political spectrum for a comparison. -----left-----------------centre-----------------right----- Communism, Socialism, Liberalism, Conservatism, Fascism

  6. Philosophy of the Spectrum • Ideologies on the left believe in equality of opportunity. • As you move down the right of the spectrum, the ideologies become less concerned with equality and more concerned with personal gain and ability.

  7. The Three Spectrums • LEFT is associated with communism, socialism and some aspects of liberal ideologies. • CENTRE is associated with certain aspects of liberalism, socialism and conservatism. • RIGHT is associated with some aspects of liberalism, but mainly conservatism and some fascism.

  8. Canadian Political Spectrum

  9. Historical Political Spectrum

  10. Ideologies of the Nineteenth Century • Nationalism • Romanticism • Conservatism • Liberalism • Socialism • Communism

  11. Nationalism • The most powerful political force in the last 200 years. • The French Revolution gave birth to European nationalism. • Loyalties are directed within the individual state, bringing a powerful dynamism to each nation’s sovereignty.

  12. Nationalism (Cont.) • Binds people of a common language and culture together. • Glorifies the nation and demands loyalty and patriotism of its citizens. • A state of mind unites all classes within the nation. • The glory and prestige of the state is its goal.

  13. Nationalism (Cont.) • Popular leaders included Napoleon, Garibaldi and Bismarck. • They were able to mobilize their people to be free of the empire. • A new Italy and a unified Germany are examples of nationalism during the 19th century.

  14. Romanticism • A popular movement that arose as Enlightenment wavered. • 1790 – 1850 • Romantic ideas began to dominate around 1815, the end of the Napoleonic Wars. • After twenty-five (25) years of warfare, the Europeans unleashed a carefree celebration of individual freedom.

  15. Romanticism (Cont.) • This was the age of passion and emotion. • In the arts, intuition and sensual feelings in the inner self were now as important as reason had been during the Enlightenment. • Imagination was the most powerful of the human forces. • There was a need to see the world through spiritual eyes and appreciate nature.

  16. Romanticism (Cont.) • Reached a peak in Paris in the 1830’s. • In salons and cafes, many of the artistic geniuses gathered and worked. • Frederic Chopin (1810-1849) and George Sand met. • Hector Berlioz created his fiery musical works. • Eugene Delacroix painted his exotic and dramatic canvases.

  17. Romanticism (Cont.) • In Paris, the popular French writer Victor Hugo (1802-1885), gained an immense readership with his novels, plays and poetry. • Wrote Hernani, The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Les Miserables. • Music became very popular. • Orchestras grew large and the quality of instruments improved dramatically. • Pianos began to grace middle class homes.

  18. Beethoven • Victor Hugo Eugene Delacroix

  19. Conservatism • Conservatives viewed the organization of society as a natural hierarchy in which some were more capable of political leadership than others. • Believed that leadership should be provided by the upper classes and the church. • Ideas of individual political, social or economic equality seemed absurd. How could anyone legislate equality?

  20. Conservatism (Cont.) • Change within a conservative society would be slow and evolutionary. • Believed the French Revolution unleashed a reign of terror and did not do away with evil. • Edmund Burke (1729-1797) wrote “Reflections on The Revolution in France” in 1790. • Argued the problem with the revolution was that its leaders ignored the French Constitution and the Rights of Man by acting in self-interest. • Felt political stability and economic security lay in the strength of the upper class.

  21. Liberalism • Became the dominant force of the 19th century. • Believed in individual liberty, private property and freedom from government regulation. • Flourished in Britain, but had a lesser impact on Central Europe and none on Russia, which was still dominated by an aristocratic elite.

  22. Liberalism (Cont.) Definition: A favourable attitude toward change. • Generally believed in parliamentary government, which would enact change through legislation. • Supported individual rights, but only for males who held a right to vote. • Did not believe in government intervention in society, as did the socialists, because state interference destroyed individual initiative.

  23. Liberalism (Cont.) • Responsibility of caring for the poor was to be left to the church and other volunteer organizations, rather than society as a whole. • Were convinced that the individual would strive to better his or her own standard of living if left to their own devices.

  24. Liberalism (Cont.) • The major proponent of Liberalism was John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). • Individuals should be free to whatever they want provided they do not hurt anyone else.

  25. Socialism • Believed people could rise above “natural law” and through planning, create the perfect society. • Argued that the human ability to plan and to control nature through science and technology, could create an equal society. • Wanted economic need abolished. • All were considered politically, socially and economically equal.

  26. Socialism (Cont.) • Inequality was derived from the private ownership of property. • Believed that property belonged to society as a whole and not to the individual. • The Communists believed that private property should be abolished altogether. • Their brand of socialism was the most extreme use of statism.

  27. Socialism (Cont.) • In 1848, Karl Marx attempted to fit all the different socialist ideas into a logical system. • He believed laissez-faire contributed to the worsening condition of the workers. • Cities were crowded, the slums more degenerate, crime and poverty more prevalent than ever before. • Marx disagreed with the liberal view that self-interest of the individual operated for the good of society.

  28. Communism • Karl Marx (1818-1883), believed a plan for state intervention was needed to overcome the evils of capitalism. • Periodic unemployment is an example. • Was a German philosopher and revolutionary, who believed society was in perpetual change. • With his colleague Friedrich Engels, Marx created the basis of modern communism.

  29. Communism (Cont.) • Sought to uncover the patterns of human progress and discover the natural laws that govern them. • Together, Marx and Engels wrote some very important books that influence history. • “The Communist Manifesto” was the most important. • Marx believed that economic classes were the opposing forces in human history. • The struggle between classes of society resulted in more complex systems of civilization.

  30. Communism (Cont.) • One of Marx’s aims was economic equality. • He felt human injustice could be eliminated through state control of the economy.

  31. The Communist Manifesto • Marx and Engel describe scientific socialism in the book. • The path of history is predetermined and cannot be changed. • The forces of governing individual changes are scientific and cannot be altered. • Both felt a spectre was haunting Europe, communism. • The powers of old Europe entered into a holy alliance. (Pope and Tsar, French radicals and German police spies.)

  32. The Communist Manifesto (Cont.) • Two things result from this fact: • Communism is acknowledged by all European powers to be itself a Power. • The Communists should openly, in the face of the whole world, publish their views.

  33. The Communist Manifesto (Cont.) • The Proletariat(working class) will use its power to take all capital away from the bourgeois. • Ten (10) measures were brought in, that would of course vary in different countries. • See handout!