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Conflicting Ideologies

Conflicting Ideologies

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Conflicting Ideologies

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  1. Conflicting Ideologies -The differing ideologies between the two powers caused a lot of bad blood between them. -The USA and the USSR were literally opposites-Capitalist and Communist, which meant that a lot of mistrust between them was present.

  2. This contributed to the start of the Cold War because the Communist theory was that there would be a world revolution. This would mean toppling capitalism-and therefore the USA. • This meant that the USA were intent on containing Communism- to preserve their own existence, which is why things such as the Truman Doctrine were devised.

  3. The Yalta Conference • Was held in February 1945 between Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt. • Laid the plans for finishing the war in Europe and the Far East and also attempted to lay the foundations for the coming peace. • Germany was split into four and to be occupied by the USSR, the USA, Britain and France. • Poland was the most difficult question addressed and an agreement was only reached through ambiguous compromises which could be interpreted differently by both sides. • The agreements made on Poland were: 1)Poland was to receive a substantial amount of land in the north and west which would land that was taken from Germany. 2)They would re-organise a provisional government by including politicians from both Poland and the London government in-exile. 3)Elections would be help as soon as possible.

  4. How did this cause the Cold War to begin? • As the agreements made were so ambiguous they opened the path for many future disagreements over the terms of the conference. • Stalin learnt that he could easily manipulate the terms and the USA which then became very useful to him in coming events. • The exact amount of land that Poland was receive was not fixed do this could be argued in the future. • Historian Martin Walker, observed these agreements were a key text “upon which all future accusations of Soviet betrayal and bed faith were made.”

  5. The Atomic Bomb

  6. Impact of Atom Bomb • First used by America at end of WW2. • ‘Little boy’ & ‘Fat man’ caused severe damage to and killed 1000’s in Hiroshima & Nagasaki to force Japan to surrender from WW2. • However, US also used the attacks on Japan with atom bombs as a threat to any other country after WW2 that they were not afraid to use their nuclear weaponry. • Also used as a show to the USSR of their weapons capability. • USSR afraid of being forced into making concessions. began developing more powerful nuclear weapons (eg. H+ bomb) • Arms race between US & USSR begins in the decade after.

  7. Personality Changes

  8. Roosevelt to Truman • Roosevelt endeavoured to continue the grand alliance even after the war was over through a personal link with Stalin. He was criticised for trying to work with the Soviet leader and his beliefs that Russia would cooperate with the west. • When Truman became president in 1945 he was determined not to write off Eastern Europe as a Soviet sphere of influence. He pursued a much tougher policy towards Russia, criticising soviet policy in Poland and ending the lend-lease aid programme which had been established by Roosevelt.

  9. Impact on the Cold War • Truman’s removal of the Lend-lease programme had a large impact on Soviet Russia as it had provided food and armaments to the country during the Second World War. The country was still very weak after the war had ended so the sudden removal of that aid made them feel abandoned by their supposed allies. • The Truman doctrine of containment and Marshall plan sent a clear message to Russia that the USA did not approve of their policies in eastern Europe. Truman openly criticised Stalin’s policies saying that he relied upon “terror and oppression”. It also showed that the west was afraid of the appeal of communism to some countries. • The arrival of Truman as president marks the time when ideological differences between the two states first became a major problem in the Cold War.

  10. Potsdam The Potsdam conference was held in occupied Germany between July 17th to August 2nd 1945. The Conference was called to decide how to divide conquered Germany. This lead to tensions between USA and USSR in the long run as they disputed each sides proposed division of Germany. At Potsdam, Stalin had intended to obtain economic help as the Soviet Union was on its last legs. USA and UK were no longer willing to be sympathetic towards soviet demands and didn’t help, Stalin felt betrayed. It was at this conference that Truman mentioned to Stalin about a “new powerful weapon”. This in turn became a contributing factor to the cold war, as Truman had not specified what the weapon was.

  11. Iron Curtain Speech • “from Stettin in the Baltic, to Trieste, in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.” • Churchill’s famous speech from March 1946. • Churchill told the world about something that had already been in place since the end of WW2. • Showed the extent of the differences between the two sides. • Showed the USA the extent of how the power of the USSR had grown since the allies had won the war, making the USSR a bigger threat than they had once been perceived. • Classed by many as the signal that ‘started’ the Cold War.

  12. THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE (1947)

  13. THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE WHY WAS IT CREATED: • It was a US supported public declaration, where Truman stressed the seriousness of the international situation and the fact that Europe was becoming increasingly divided into two mutually hostile blocs. • As a result of this declaration, Truman consequently led support to non-communist countries which were struggling against Communism, through aid packages promising both troops and money.

  14. HOW DID THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE CONTRIBUTE TO THE BEGINNING OF THE WAR • Condemned Soviet policy in Eastern Europe – (VIEWED AS WESTERN AGRESSION) TRUMAN DOCTRINE – “One way of life is based upon individual liberty and freedom from political oppression, The 2nd way is based upon terror and oppression and the suppression of personal freedom” • Example of the policy of “CONTAINEMENT” - Truman feared a Communist uprising in Italy, so his announcement of the “TRUMAN DOCTRINE” was viewed as the first step towards pushing back the Communist “sphere of influence” in Eastern Europe. HOWEVER THE USSR REACTED AGGRESIVELY TOWARDS THIS POLICY, AND CONSEQUENTLY CREATED THE “COMINFORM”

  15. Marshall Plan • The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Programme) was the main rebuilding tool to make stronger western Europe through economical stimulus. • The Plan came into force on the June 5 1947 the Plan was offered to the USSR but they did not take it. • The Plan was operational for 4 Years during this period over $13 billion dollars was given in the form of economical and technical assistances to help with recovery of post-war Europe • The Plan look to the future of Europe they did this by focusing on modernising European industrial and business practices. • The Plan stop the spread of Communism across Europe the USSR did not like the interface of the US in Europe would not accept the plan.

  16. 24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949 Berlin Blockade • It was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War and the first crisis that resulted in casualties. • - During the multinational occupation of Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway and road access to the sectors of Berlin under their control. • Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food and fuel, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city. • In response, the Western Allies organized the Berlin Airlift to carry supplies to the people in West Berlin. • over 4,000 tons per day required by Berlin during the airlift • The Royal Air Force, other Commonwealth nations, and the United States Air Force, flew over 200,000 flights providing 13,000,000 tons of food to Berlin in an operation lasting almost a year. • By the spring of 1949, the effort was clearly succeeding, and by April the airlift was delivering more cargo than had previously flowed into the city by rail. • The success of the Airlift was humiliating to the Soviets, who had repeatedly claimed it could never work. The blockade was lifted in May, 1949. Berliners watching a C-54 land at Tempelhof Airport (1948).

  17. Korea • After Japan had been defeated in 1945 the Western allies and the USSR thought Korea should have independence. • Korea was divided along the 38th parallel • Soviets = Northern Korea • US troops = South • The two powers couldn’t decide the future of the state, like in Germany. • From 1945 – 1948 attempts by the United Nations to unify Korea failed.

  18. Tensions between the USA and the USSR was high after the North attacked the South. Stalin gave the go ahead for the attack. • It was seen that the Soviets could overrun Western Europe. • Showed the USA the hold that the USSR had on China, as they got them involved in the war. This showed that the Soviets ‘Sphere of influence’ is growing.