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Psychoanalytic Therapy

Psychoanalytic Therapy

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Psychoanalytic Therapy

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  1. Psychoanalytic Therapy

  2. Levels of Consciousness • Conscious • Sensations and experiences that the person is aware of any point in time • Preconscious • Memories of events and experiences that can easily be recalled with little effort • Unconscious • The container for memories and emotions that are threatening to the conscious mind and must be pushed away (Sharf, 2004)

  3. The Structure of Personality • Id — (biological and unconscious component) • Ego — (psychological component) • Superego — (social component)

  4. Ego-Defense Mechanisms • Are normal behaviors • Help the individual cope with anxiety and prevent the ego from being overwhelmed • Deny or distort reality while operating on an unconscious level • Have adaptive value if they do not become a style of life to avoid facing reality

  5. The Development of Personality • 1. Oral Stage (0-1 year): mistrust of others, rejecting others, fear of inability to form intimate relationship. • 2. Anal Stage (1-3): learning independence or accepting personal power. • 3. Phallic Stage (3-6): how parents respond to child’s sexuality has impacted on later sexual attitudes. • 4. Latency Stage (6-12):investing their sexual energy to social acceptable activities. • 5. Genital Stage (12-60):the focus of sexual energy is toward members of the other sex.

  6. View of human nature • Deterministic: • Behavior is determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivation, and biological instinctual drives. • The first 6 years of life determined your personality • Libido: a source of motivation and energy

  7. Therapeutic Goals • Make the unconscious conscious • Strengthen the ego, so that behavior can be more on reality • Explore past to increase self-understanding and gain insight • Conduct a successful analysis in order to change a person’s personality

  8. Therapist’s function and role • Foster a transference relationship • Help clients to gain insight and understand “why” for their symptoms • make unconscious conscious • Build relationship, listen, interpret, and pay attentions on resistances • Assess the client’s readiness to change

  9. Therapeutic Relationship • Understanding the old pattern, connecting to current issues, and making new choices • Working through the transference relationship • Therapist’s reaction is not equal to transferences • Counter-transference reaction as a therapeutic tool to understand the world of the clients

  10. Psychoanalytic Techniques • Free Association • Dream Analysis • Interpretation • Transference • Counter-transference • Resistance

  11. Free Association • Client reports whatever comes to mind • It opens doors to unconscious wishes, fantasies, conflicts, and motivation. • Content may be bodily sensations, feelings, fantasies, thoughts, memories, recent events, and the therapist.

  12. Dream Analysis • Dreams provide insights for unresolved issues • Wishes and fears can be revealed in dream • Unacceptable wishes or memories are often expressed in dreams • Dream is a compromise between repressed id and the ego defenses

  13. Interpretation • Therapist points out, explains, and teaches the meanings of whatever is revealed • Guidelines • Close to conscious awareness • Consider clients’ readiness • Go only as deep as the client is able to go • Point out resistance or defense before interpreting the emotion or conflict that lies beneath it

  14. Transference • The client reacts to the therapist as he did to an earlier significant other • This allows the client to experience feelings that would otherwise be inaccessible • Analysis of transference allows the client to achieve insight into the influence of the past

  15. Counter-transference • The reaction of the therapist toward the client that may interfere with objectivity • Different kinds of counter-transference • The irrational reactions of therapists toward the patients • Therapists’ reactions

  16. Resistance • Anything that works against the progress of therapy and prevents the production of unconscious material • Working alliance increased when resistance decreased(Patton, Kivlighan, & Multon, 1997) • Examples?

  17. Analysis of resistance • Helps client become aware of the reasons for the resistance (e.g., avoiding pain or anxiety) • Helps the client to see that resistance (e.g., canceling appointments) is a way of defending against anxiety • Resistance interferes with the ability to accept changes

  18. From a multicultural perspective • Contribution to multicultural counseling • Help clients to build ego and cultural identity • Help therapists become aware their own source of contertransference, bias, prejudices, and stereotypes. • Limitations for multicultural counseling • Cost, Upper- and middle-class values • Ambigurity (vs. Asian prefers structured and concrete solution) • Blame clients vs. blame external factors (social, cultural, or political factors)