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psychoanalytic theory

psychoanalytic theory

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psychoanalytic theory

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  1. psychoanalytic theory A.K.A. psychodynamic theory • Sigmund Freud • based on case studies & self-analysis • childhood & unconscious sexual & aggressive drives

  2. psychoanalytic theory

  3. psychoanalytic theory Id • sexual & aggressive drives • pleasure principle • irrational & impatient

  4. psychoanalytic theory Ego • uses reasoning & planning • fulfills Id in socially-appropriate ways • reality principle

  5. psychoanalytic theory SuperEgo • internalizes external demands • moral conscience (right vs. wrong) • punishes you with guilt, anxiety, etc.

  6. defense mechanisms If the ego cannot balance Id & SuperEgo, anxiety results. Reduce anxiety with self-deceptions.

  7. defense mechanisms p. 465 Repression Denial Rationalization Displacement Regression Projection Reaction formation Sublimation

  8. psychosexual stages of development ORAL 0 – 1 yr conflicts of overstimulation or over restriction of erogenous zones = fixation ANAL 1 – 3 yr 3 – 6 yr PHALLIC castration anxiety penis envy Oedipus/Elektra complex LATENCY 6 - puberty repression of impulses GENITAL puberty displacement of impulses

  9. psychoanalysis reveals the unconscious conflicts manifest content DREAMS: latent content THERAPY: free association

  10. psychoanalysis Id influences your behavior in everyday life: accidents memory lapses “Freudian slips” random behavior humor defense mechanisms

  11. behaviorism • behavior is measurable • experiments on animals • personality & behavior is learned from reinforcements & punishments • The environment influences you. You do not influence the environment.

  12. humanistic perspective • rejected both Freud & behaviorism • people are good • free will • self-concept

  13. Carl Rogers Basic human motivation: SELF-ACTUALIZATION To grow emotionally, intellectually, in skills, work, as family member, or relationships.

  14. Carl Rogers SELF CONCEPT REAL SELF IDEAL SELF your perception of who you truly are your perception of who you should be or want to be (shaped by those whose opinions you value)

  15. Carl Rogers SELF CONCEPT REAL SELF IDEAL SELF = your perception of who you truly are your perception of who you should be or want to be you feel competent & emotionally healthy (you are capable of self-actualization)

  16. Carl Rogers SELF CONCEPT REAL SELF IDEAL SELF ≠ your perception of who you truly are your perception of who you should be or want to be psychological problems (you are not capable of self-actualization)

  17. Carl Rogers SELF CONCEPT REAL SELF IDEAL SELF your perception of who you truly are your perception of who you should be or want to be agreement? type of positive regard

  18. Carl Rogers Child has a SELF-CONCEPT that needs: POSITIVE REGARD CONDITIONAL UNCONDITIONAL Parents should disapprove of child’s behavior, not the child.

  19. social cognitive view • actively process info from social experiences (influences though, feeling, & behavior) • self-concept varies for difference situations • high vs low degree of self-efficacy • internal vs external locus of control

  20. barnum effect tendency to accept vague descriptions (of our personality)

  21. Your personality is composed of various traits.

  22. traits TRAIT stable & enduring tendency in behavior e.g. shyness TRAIT THEORY describes & measures specific traits of personality

  23. 5 Factor Model LOW HIGH NEUROTICISM calm, not reactive, stable guilt, anxiety, depression outgoing, sociable, sensation-seeking EXTRAVERSION quiet, solitary, self-focused OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE traditional, routine, low risk creative, new ideas & people AGREEABLENESS antagonistic, suspicious trusting, softhearted, complies CONSCIENTIOUSNESS lazy, aimless, quitter self-disciplined, dutiful, achiever

  24. temperament traits you are born with

  25. behavioral genetics What is contribution of genes vs environment to behavior? (ranges from personality to mental illness)

  26. behavioral genetics Family studies amt of trait ~ relatedness? Adoption Studies Twin Studies MONOZYGOTIC TWINS (MZ) DIZYGOTIC TWINS (DZ) MZ > DZ ?

  27. nature vs nurture Monozygotic twins more similar in extraversion & neuroticism than dizygotic twins. Low correlations between adopted children & their adoptive parents. What does this suggest?

  28. nature vs nurture environment shared unshared