Psychoanalytic Theory and Criticism-Freud • Psychoanalytic criticism builds on Freudian theories of psychology. • Austrian Psychologist • While in a hospital in 1890, he noticed that many patients were showing abnormal behavior without physical abnormalities • Believed that the behaviors were related to repressed childhood traumas
Psychoanalytic Theory and Criticism-Freud Freud created the topographic theory, which included: • The Conscious- contains thoughts and feelings of which an individual is presently aware. The conscious includes not only sensory perceptions, but thoughts and feelings as well. (Ex: I hear my dog barking. I think there is someone at the door.) • Preconscious- memories and thoughts of which an individual is not presently aware, but which can be recalled. (Ex: We keep the coffee mugs in the second cabinet from the right.) • Unconscious- the sum of the individual’s repressed desires, fears, and traumas that, while an individual is never fully conscious of them, can be revealed through dreams, free association, or Freudian slips—mistakes in speech that reveal subconscious thoughts. • Freud believed that our unconscious was influenced by childhood events. Freud organized these events into developmental stages involving relationships with parents and drives of desire and pleasure where children focus
Psychoanalytic Theory and Criticism-Freud Freud also created the Structural Theory. The Structural Theory states that every individual has a psychic apparatus, and this apparatus consists of three parts: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id- a person’s instinctual desires. These vary from the need to eat and sleep to the need to satisfy sexual appetites. The id demands immediate gratification at any cost The superego- serves as a counterbalance to the id. It consists of social conventions as well as an individual’s beliefs, values, and ideals. It reminds a person, both consciously and unconsciously, what actions are acceptable in society The ego- a person’s reason and the part of the psychic apparatus that balances the id with the superego. The ego creates feelings of guilt and shame when one of the desires in a person’s id is in opposition to the superego and the cultural norm.
Psychoanalytic Theory and Criticism-Freud If the feelings of guilt and shame become too intense and painful, the ego may create a defense mechanism in the form of: Denial passive aggression Delusion hypochondria, projection In more severe cases, repression. Repressed desires of the id may also express themselves in symbols, dream images, and Freudian slips. If they remain hidden and unexposed, they can develop into neuroses.
Psychoanalytic Theory and Criticism-Jung Carl Gustav Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist and one-time protégé of Freud, also believed that there were three parts to an individual’s personality. • The shadow- consists of the qualities and characteristics of an individual that he or she consciously or unconsciously wants to ignore. These can be sexual desires, traumatic experiences, or secret fears. • The anima or animus- the essence of an individual and the person he or she eventually wants to become. It is the personification of his or her drive, motivation, ambition, and values. It is also usually depicted as the opposite gender: men have a female anima and women have a male animus. • The persona-The persona is the mask or facade a person presents to the world. • The ultimate goal of each person is self-actualization, in which the shadow, persona, and anima/us become one.
Psychoanalytic Theory and Criticism-Jung Jung argued that there was a collective unconscious. • The collective unconscious consists of cultural symbols and archetypes that are unconsciously shared by all humanity. • It is believed to contribute to programmed patterns of behavior and thought, in much the same way animals act by instinct. • Jung offered as evidence of his theory the fact that certain symbols and the relationships between them have the same meaning to many people across cultures. For example, the color red has the same significance to people of all cultures. Since it is the color of the human life force, the blood, it represents passion, violence, and love.
Psychoanalytic Literary Criticism • Freud and Jung’s ideas are adapted to an understanding of literature. • It exposes the repressed desires and fears of the author. • Psychoanalytic theory suggests that all texts have two types of content: manifest content and latent content. • The manifest content is the literal, surface level message of the work. • The latent content, by contrast, is the underlying meaning of the text, conveyed through symbolic language and the Freudian slips in the author’s diction.
Psychology and Psychoanalysis in The Catcher in the Rye Potential Diagnoses of Holden Caulfield • Major Depressive Disorder • Mania/Hypomania • Bereavement • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder • Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Low Self-Esteem • Mood Disorder • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder • Oppositional Defiance Disorder • Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder