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Psychoanalytic Theory

Psychoanalytic Theory

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Psychoanalytic Theory

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  1. Psychoanalytic Theory

  2. Core Concepts: • 1. Psychic Determinism • 2. Unconscious Motivation • 3. Child development • 4. Conflict

  3. Sub-Theories: • Economic/Drive Theory ( Dual Instinct ) • Topographic ( UNC, Preconscious, CON ) • Structural ( ID, EGO, SUPEREGO )

  4. Instincts: • Eros (libido) • Thanatos (death/aggression) • Love and Death (Creation and Destruction)

  5. Cathexis (investment of psychic energy) • Fixation (getting stuck)

  6. Structures of the Mind • Id instinctual gratification Pleasure Principle / Primary Process • Ego reality testing Reality Principle / Secondary Process • Superego

  7. Psychosexual Development • Oral (0-18 mo.) Pleasure zone: mouth; Activities: sucking, mouthing, biting etc. • Anal (18-36 mo.) Pleasure zone: anus Activity: elimination & retention of feces (control) • Phallic (3-6 yo) Oedipus Complex

  8. Latency • Genital • Personality fixed by the end of Phallic stage

  9. Anxiety and Defense • Repression • Defense Mechanisms Examples: Projection, Displacement, Reaction Formation, etc.

  10. Character Fixed patterns of conflict and defense.

  11. Criticism of Freud Overemphasis on unconscious processes Overemphasis on “sexual” development Neglect of interpersonal environment and social learning Overemphasis on early development Difficult to operationalize and test Biased by era and culture

  12. Post-Freudian Theories Evolution of the theory • Move away from primary focus on instincts and more toward ego capacities • Greater emphasis on social/interpersonal relations • Development as on-going process Similarities: Dynamic UNC, Conflict, Stages of Development

  13. Jung • Collective UNC • Archetypes • Anima/Animus • Introversion/Extraversion

  14. Adler • “Individual Psychology” unique individuality and unified strivings of the whole person • Ego functions • Social environment • Inferiority/Superiority • Compensatory Motivation • Inferiority Complex

  15. Erikson • Psychosocial Development 8 stages, development throughout the lifespan • Crises 1.Trust 2. Autonomy 5. Identity 6. Intimacy

  16. OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY • Interpersonal relations and the development of the SELF • Internalized “object” representations • Fundamental role of ATTACHMENT as primary need

  17. Klein Stages: • 1. (Schizoid) Fusion “Mommy and I are one” • 2. (Paranoid) Good bad splitting similar to “bi-polar representations” (Kernberg) • 3. (Depressive) Integration ambivalence & compromise • “good enough mothering”

  18. Attachment • MAHLER, BOWLBY, AINSWORTH, KERNBERG etc. • responsive parenting • secure/anxious/avoidant attachments

  19. Kohut • SELF PSYCHOLOGY • Self-objects • Functions • Mirroring

  20. Horney • psychosocial and sociocultural factors • “womb envy”

  21. ASSESSMENT • tip of the iceberg • ambiguous stimuli

  22. Projective Testing • Rorschach • TAT Murray’s Needs “higher order motives” • Interrater/Interjudge reliability

  23. Empirical evidence • Criticism • superficial • isolated • artificial

  24. Empirical evidence 1. UNC processing Automaticity 2. UNC motivation Nisbet & Wilson (unconscious behavior) Silverman (subliminal activation) 3. Repression Mixed results Repressed Memory Debate

  25. Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event.

  26. Group A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? A week later they were asked: Was there any broken glass? Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass than Group A (hit).