Type Approval Laboratoryfor electronic communication equipment Basic Concepts & Requirements
Scope of the Workshop • Normative, regulatory and standardization frameworks • Basic concepts of Type Approval Test Methodologies • Conformity Assessment Concepts & Requirements • Safety and EMC • Spectral Efficiency • Fixed Coommunications (Legacy & NGN) equipment • Mobile Communications equipment • Broadcasting services equipment
Participation • Regulators (Tanzania, Kenya) • Standardisation Bodies (TBS) • Opearators • Sintesio Team - consisting of experts from the industry (EMC, fixed networks, mobile networks, broadcasting), specially selected for this particular project
Workshop Overview • Introductions • TCRA presentations • Sintesio presentations (general, EMC, safety, broadcasting, mobile networks, fixed networks) • Breakaway sessions • Wrap-up on breakaway sessions
Results of the Workshop • Summary Inputs to Cost Evaluation: • Normative, regulatory and standardization frameworks • Agreement on Basic Conformity asses. concepts • Applicable Type Approval Procedures • Laboratory Requirements • Next step(s): • Evaluating the cost of Type Approval Lab. • Designing the Type Approval Laboratory
Current Status • Regulatory Framework well established • Type Approval in place • Testing limited at the most to field trials • Installation personell has to be certified • Vendors/ distributors have to be rgistered with the authority • Problem of counterfeit, sub-standard mobile terminals • More normative framework still needed • More enforcement needed
Type Approval is ... Type approval is granted to a product that meets a minimum set of regulatory, technical and safetyrequirements. Generally, type approval is required before a product is allowed to be sold in a particular country, so the requirements for a given product will vary around the world.
Operator Vs “Regulator” Perspective • Operators essentially want to assure revenue and therefore strive to create/preserve value for their customers • While the aim of regulators is to protect the people, the environment and the resources
Operators do • Performance measurement (KPIs, network element counters, signalling monitoring) • Implementation / protocol conformance testing • field trial testing/ drive tests – real environment • interoperability testing • load testing • E2E testing • Sometimes have test plants / laboratories and are better placed to conduct some tests
Regulators/Governments Enforce • Essential requirements: - Safety (LVD, SAR, radiated emissions) - Electromagnetic Compatibility (emissions and immunity) - Efficient use of radiofrequency spectrum • Other
Testing • Conformity - To essential requirements - Additional, e.g. interoperability, emergency … • Interoperability (Interconnection, interworking, roaming, multiple vendor network) - Not practical in type approval - This is a real problem everybody faces
Two dimensions of Conformity Assessment costs Subject of the discussion of this workshop!
R&TTE Directive 1999/5/EC on radio and telecommunications terminal equipment defines a normative framework for CE mark approval and represents a good example and a point of reference for setting a type approval process on a national and international level. Low Voltage Directive (LVD) – Directive 2006/95/EC Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive – Directive 2004/108/EC radio equipment shall be so constructed that it effectively uses the spectrum allocated to terrestrial/space radio communication Point of Reference: CE mark Approval
R&TTE Requirements R&TTE … Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive(s) Standards(s) Presumption of Conformance Essential Requirements 3.1.a 3.1.b 3.2 3.3 Safety EMC Efficient use of RF Spectrum Optional Other(s) Technical justification
Safety Standards IEC 60065 for Household Audio/Video Equipment IEC 60335 Household and similar electrical appliances IEC 60601 Medical Electrical Equipment IEC 60691 Thermal Links IEC 60730 Automatic Electrical Controls IEC 60745 Hand-held Electric Tools IEC 60950 Information Technology Equipment IEC 61010 Electrical Equipment for Measurement, Control and Laboratory Use IEC 61058 Switches for Appliances IEC 61215 and IEC 61646 for Photovoltaic (PV) Modules IEC 61965 for Cathode Ray Tubes
Good practice Low Voltage Directive (LVD) 2006/95/EC http://ec.europa.eu/safety Harmonized standard IEC/ETSI EN 60950 Electric shock Energy hazards Fire Mechanical and heat hazards Radiation hazards Chemical hazards Electric strength Leakage current Resistance to fire Protection from electric shock Protection from energy hazards Physical and constructive requirements and more then 400 pages in std. EN 60950
EMC - What We Need? • EMC standards • knowledge • measurement equipment • laboratory • good will (intentions)
EMC Standards • IEC CISPR 16 • IEC CISPR 22 (EN 55022) • IEC CISPR 24 • EN 300 386 v 1.4.1 • EN 61000
Testing of receivers • Assuring that the receivers comply with (future!) DVB-T network characteristics • Two approaches are proposed: • One-time testing at TAL (testing of one type, preparing a report, support in solving problems, database support for Communication campaign) • Permanent testing – permanent platform for compatibility and interoperability testing (DVB-T network is a changing environment!) using all approved receivers on the market
Mobile Communications Systems • 1st Generation ( Analogue, e.g. AMPS, NMT, TACS) • 2nd Generation (digital, e.g. GSM, PCS) • 3rd Generation (IMT-2000/UMTS) • 4th Generation (LTE Advanced) • Other (PMR, TETRA etc) MAIN SCOPE?
Main Subsystems Access Network Core Network – Circuit Switched UM UU Mobility, Call & Session Management . . . (Non-Radio) Radio User Equipmet Core Network – Packet Switched safety & EMC R&TTE (Including safety & EMC)
Scope of the Breakaway session Decide upon TAL framework • Which user eqipment and network elements should be type approved? • What test methodologies should be used? • Which standards & recommendations should the equipment comply to?
Wrap-Up of the Breakaway Sessions – Common • R&TTE Directive is a good point of reference • Technology Independence is important • Phased approach is encouraged • The most problematic issues are to be addressed first (i.e. user equipment, receivers) • (Harmonised) standards and their references to be used wherever possible
Issues Identified • Counterfeit mobile terminals - cannot be solved by means of TA as those terminals enter the market illegally • Questionable quality of network equipment, i.e. equipment not meeting the declared operation parametres - can be solved by menas of TA only to some extent
Cocluding Remarks • An independent testing facility is important for the region. • Phased approach encouraged. Start with essential requirements and then expand the scope based on the demand • There is adequate regulatory framework but not enough normative framework and, consequently, little enforcement
Concluding Remarks • Fake phones issue cannot be solved by means of testing and TA alone if they enter the market illegally, i.e. without TA • Operators and regulators should equip themselves with detailed technical (protocols, architecture, testing) knowledge. Ideally by menas of university courses and other “neutral” sources • Operators to concentrate on interoperability, performance and QoS. Signalling monitoring essential • In the beginning, regulators to concentrate on essential requirements
Discussion ? email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
More … Support Slides
Why safety? Electrical products are now the cause of 80% of all fires. Technology trend leads to reduction and minimization of electronic circuits. The concentration of elements and concentration of electric power per mm2 is increasing. Electrical products can fail and may not guarante full life time.
Step 1 Select the product categories Choose the corresponding standards Equip the test laboratory, acquire knowledge and experience
Step 2 Enforce safety regulations in the country Determine the penalty Implement controls on the market
How to build the test site Prepare enough place for: Warehouse for measurement and IUT equipment Filtering the Internal AC main power and IT network (safety fuse and separate distribution) Long term tests (tests can take more than 1 month) Temperature&humidy tests (to assure separate place for noisy test equipment (temperature&humidity chamber)) AC/AC or DC/DC variation
EMC definition • Electromagnetic compatibility is the ability of a device, unit of a device or system to function satisfactorily in the electromagnetic environment, without the unacceptable electromagnetic disturbances
EMC laboratory Dilemma: • Pre-compliance • or • Compliance test • OATS (open area test site) • or • EMC anechoic chamber (shielded room)
EMC laboratory - 2 • For civil use or military use • As a help of the domestic electronics industry or just interception of the poor products on the market • big difference for the investor
Equipment Types • Terminals / User equipment • MS - UE • . • . • . • Access Network – With Radio Parts • NodeB - BTS - Repeater • . • . • . • Access Network – No Radio Parts • RNC -BSC -TRAU . • . • . • Core Network • - MSC/ VLR • MSCS/ VLR • HLR/AuC • VLR • SGSN • GGSN • EIR • SCP • SMSC Types of Mobile User Equipment