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Drinking Water

Drinking Water

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Drinking Water

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  1. Drinking Water Lecture Undergraduate Study – General Medicine Assoc. Prof. Zdenek Fiala, Ph.D. Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine Charles University, Faculty of Medicine, Hradec Kralove

  2. General sources of Water Glacial water Sea water Surface water Groundwater

  3. Water supply to population Public water systems Treated water Chemicals/Byproducts Strict output control Transportation/contamination Large number of people Water wells Bottled water Untreated water Natural contamination Irregular/weak control Limited number of people Untreated/treated water Without chlorination (O3, UV) Strict output control Storage conditions/contamination Large number of people

  4. Absence of the pathogen micro-organisms and the viruses (Enterovirusis, Hepatitis-A) Water quality (cold/hot water) WHO Microscopic organisms within the permitted limits Chemical contamination within the permitted limits Physical indicators within the permitted limits Recommended content of minerals and trace elements Radioactive contamination within the permitted limits (radon, α/β-radioactivity http://www.who.int/entity/water_sanitation_health/dwq/en

  5. Pathogens and microscopic organisms(examples) CFU= Colony-Forming Unit LV = Limiting Value = upper limit of acceptable values (not acute) HLV = Highest Limiting Value = excludes water as drinking water (acute)

  6. Chemical substances and physical factors (examples) LV = Limiting Value = upper limit of acceptable values (not acute) HLV = Highest Limiting Value = excludes water as drinking water (acute)

  7. Minerals and trace elements(examples) HLV = Highest Limiting Value = excludes water as drinking water (acute) LV = Limiting Value = lower limit of acceptable values RV = recommended value

  8. Water analyses Full analysis (72 indicators) Escherichia coli, Clostridium prfringens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Microscopic picture (dead/living organisms) Ammonium, Nitrates, Nitrites, Aluminium, Chlorine (free), Manganese, pH, Iron Limited analysis

  9. Frequency of analyses of drinking water (examples)

  10. Glass, Polyethylene, Polycarbonate Baby water Table (spring) water Bottled water Drinking water Natural mineral water Natural medicinal water

  11. Baby water Groundwater without treatment Mineralization < 1 g/L Nitrates < 15 mg/L UV bacterial decontamination Best quality for lifelong use Table (spring) water Groundwater Physical treatment allowed Mineralization < 1 g/L Nitrates < 25 mg/L UV bacterial decontamination

  12. Drinking water Groundwater, surface water Chemical/physical treatment Mineralization < 1 g/L Nitrates < 50 mg/L UV bacterial decontamination For lifelong use Average quality Soda water Saturated Drinking water (CO2) UV bacterial decontamination For casual use

  13. Natural mineral water Groundwater without treatment Mineralization < 6 g/L Without strong medicinal effect UV bacterial decontamination For casual use (0.5 L) Best quality for casual use Natural medicinal water Groundwater withou treatment Mineralization > 6 g/L With strong medicinal effect UV bacterial decontamination For casual use with medical control !

  14. Recommendation for babies Baby water or table (spring) water Without carbon dioxide Nitrates <15 mg/L Sodium < 15 mg/L Recommendation for bottled water Calcium 40 – 80 mg/L Magnesium 20 – 30 mg/L Potassium 1 – 5 mg/L Sodium < 20 mg/L Nitrates < 15 mg/L Sulphates < 240 mg/L Chlorides < 25 mg/L