1. Who Participates • Autocratic vs. Democratic • 2. Selecting the Executive • 3. Geographic Distribution of Power 3 Ways to Classify Governments
Autocracy- “self-rule” one ruler who arbitrarily rules and controls the people’s lives in the name of the people • Monarchy-Denmark • Dictatorship-former Iraq • Totalitarian- Peoples’ Republic of China, former Soviet Union 1. Who Participates?
Who Participates? • Oligarchy-rule by few • Junta- rule by military (former Chile, Thailand, Pakistan) • Aristocracy- rule by landed classes (former Mexico) • Theocracy- rule by religious officials (Iran, Vatican)
Democracy- “rule of the people” • Direct • Indirect • Democracy and free enterprise go hand in hand- • They promote individual freedom • The governments participation in the economy is limited but used to protect the public Who Participates?
Parliamentary-Executive is part of legislative Branch and chosen by its majority party Presidential-executive chosen at large by voters Advantages of Parliamentary System • More cooperation between the executive and the legislature-questions with the Prime Minister once a week • More accountability for the executive-legislature can ask for vote of no confidence • Cabinet officials play an active role in enactment of legislation Disadvantage of Parliamentary System • Prime Minister not as representative as the president • Allows one party to go unchecked • Instability 2. How is the Executive Chosen?-Parliamentary model vs. Presidential Model
Unitary System 3. Geographic distribution of power People The Big Government makes policies for the local governments as well as handle national affairs: examples France, Britain, China, Egypt Big Government Local Government Local Government
Geographic Distribution of Power • Confederal: The people establish the local governments which give to the national government (power that is extremely limited) (Articles of Confederation, Confederate States of America) • Federal: Power is constitutionally divided between levels of government, and their legitimacy comes from the people
How much government? Want stuff More gov’t Have stuff Less gov’t
Marxism/Leninism: central control of economy-total equality and security (totalitarianism, despotism, authoritarianism) • Socialism: government control of economy-economic equality, political liberty • Liberalism: active government to achieve economic and social equality-political liberty, economic security, equal opportunity • Conservative: protect capitalism, political liberty, economic liberty, social order • Libertarianism: least government is best government Other ideologies
Adapted from www.jim.com/hobbes.htm Locke vs. Hobbes
Form a more perfect union • Establish Justice • Insure Domestic Tranquility • Provide for the Common Defense • Promote General Welfare • Secure Blessings of Liberty • “A nation is formed by the willingness of each of us to share in the responsibility for upholding the common good…For the American idea, though it is shared by all of us, is realized in each one of us.” Barbara Jordan Purposes of Government