Essential Questions • What social, political, and economic issues tended to divide Americans in the period prior to the Civil War? • Why did the election of Abraham Lincoln seem to exacerbate sectional tensions in the prewar period? • What impact did political and military leadership have on the conduct of the war? • How did the war affect minorities during the period (women, free blacks, slaves, immigrants)? • How did the Civil War “make” modern America?
Fundamental Causes of the War • Sectionalism and states’ rights • Slavery • Economic issues
The Dividing Union • Missouri Compromise (1820) • Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law • Kansas–Nebraska Act (1854) • Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) Dred Scott Cartoon criticizing the Fugitive Slave Law
The Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln Stephen A. Douglas John C. Breckin-ridge John Bell
Secession • South Carolina was first to secede • Several other states followed soon after • Virginia seceded after the Battle of Fort Sumter Seceding states appear in green
Discussion Questions • What were the three fundamental causes of the Civil War? Which do you think was the most important? Why? • How did the Dred Scott decision help bring the country closer to civil war? Do you think the decision made civil war inevitable? Why or why not? • While running for president, Abraham Lincoln said that he had no plans to abolish slavery. Why then did Southerners fear his election so much?
The Creation of the Confederacy • Delegates met in Montgomery, Alabama • Formed the Confederate States of America • Jefferson Davis elected president, with Alexander Stephens as vice president CSA President Jefferson Davis
Buchanan’s Inaction • Believed secession was illegal, but that acting to prevent it was also illegal • Decided to let the incoming administration handle the problem President James Buchanan