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    1. WELCOME TO AN OVERVIEW OF THE REID TECHNIQUE AND OUR PART IN THE FRANK STERLING CASE Presented By Richard Byington

    3. Introduction John Reid is credited with developing the Reid Nine steps of Interrogation. He developed this technique because he was appalled at suspects being physically harmed by some members of the Chicago P.D. This was later referred to as the 3rd Degree

    4. The Reid Technique of Interrogation Should Not Be Utilized If You dont have at least a reasonable suspicion your suspect has committed a crime. The suspect has been deprived of food or sleep just prior to the interrogation. The suspect is not able to fully understand the circumstances he finds himself in. (Low IQ) Even for the most serious crimes interrogations should not exceed six hours .

    5. What Makes Your Suspect a Candidate for Interrogation. Did the suspect have the following: a. Opportunity b. Access c. Motive d. Did they leave any physical evidence behind at the scene connecting them to the crime.

    6. False Confessions

    7. Coerced Compliant Confessions A false confession resulting in an effort to escape an intolerable environment. (34%) Coercion: Physical abuse or threats of physical harm. Duress: excessive length or unbearable pressure Implied promises of leniency (Help, Better, Best)

    8. Recommendations Never suggest or imply that the suspect is guilty even though he does not remember committing the crime. Responding to the statement I may have done it but I cant remember. Corroboration is critical. If he cannot give you information only the guilty would know, there is a high probability IT'S NOT HIM.

    9. Coerced Internalized False Confessions False confession offered from a suspect who has been convinced that he must be guilty of the crime, (21%) Suspect Characteristics 1. Suspect initially claims to have no recollection of committing the crime. 2. Suspect is ultra-cooperative with police 3. Suspect has no motivation to commit the crime.

    10. OK I DID IT Is an ADMISSION Not a CONFESSION If the suspect cannot give you additional details about the crime, high probability he did not commit the crime 4. Once a CONFESSION is taken it is not the end of your investigation. The details need to be verified

    11. Frank Sterling Case

    12. The Murder Victim Viola Manville was 74-years old at the time she was killed. White Female Had been shot with a BB gun and severely beaten about the head. Her body was found along an old railroad bed in Hilton NY in 1988

    13. Timeline 11/29/88 Viola Manvilles body is found by Thomas Gregson, a deer hunter on Kellys farm. 11/30/88 Family members tell police that Viola walked the railroad tracks where her body was discovered on a regular basis. 11/30/88 Frank tells police that he walked his dog on the same tracks two days before the crime

    14. Details of Franks Alibi he Gave to Police When he was First Interviewed He worked at Laidlaw Bus Lines from 7 am until 1 pm on the day of the murder. He was driven home by a co-worker Doug Bryant after his shift. He stated that he was baking cakes and went to the Big M store to buy frosting at about 1:30 pm. Was able to tell investigators what flavor of frosting the store was out of that day.

    15. Franks Alibi 5. He also stated that later that afternoon he watched TV, specifically the Dating Game and Cartoons, Duck Tales, Smurfs, and the Chipmunks. 6. He agrees to go with investigators to police headquarters and is driven home by the police later that same day.

    16. Franks Alibi Checks Out He is cleared of any involvement in the Manville Murder Investigation

    17. What Sgt. Stenclik & Dep. Lemon Discover: They check the inventory of the Big M store for that day. They find the frosting Frank bought was Rainbow and the flavor he wanted, Maple, was indeed not in stock. They verify with Dale Hartnett the Program Director for Channel 30 that the story lines Frank gave for all the cartoons he watched that day were accurate.

    18. The Police Interview Mark Christie

    19. Reasons the Police Suspected Mark Christie He frequented the area of the murder. He owned BB guns ( a fact he admitted in his interview with police). He also told police that he had nothing to do with the Manville Murder and if he did he would lie about it anyway. He was under investigation at his High School for assault on another student.

    20. Show Map

    21. Police Release Mark Christie Confident That His Story Is True Case Goes Cold

    22. New Investigators Enter The Manville Murder Investigation It is now July 10, 1991

    23. New Investigators From the hundreds of pages of documents I reviewed preparing for my interview with Mark Christie the following was apparent: a. No new evidence had been developed that would indicate Frank was the killer. b. Franks Alibi was still solid. c. Frank had no motive to kill Viola Manville

    24. Frank Agrees to Another Interview with These New Investigators He voluntarily enters the police station in the afternoon informing the investigators that he just returned from a 36 hour trucking job and is very tired. The following morning about 2 AM Frank, according to these investigators, makes a full confession.

    25. Some Issues I have with Sterling Case: Only his confession is video taped. The lengthy interrogation was not. Franks alibi had checked out in the original investigation and he was cleared. No physical evidence or eyewitness ever tied Frank to the crime scene. He had no history of violent crimes or any prior criminal record.

    26. Sterling Case 5. When you listen to Franks video confession he is not doing the majority of the talking or giving new details as you would expect in a validated confession. 6. The Investigators feed him details of the crime. Most of the time Frank just says yes to what ever he is being told.

    27. When Frank Does Give Details of the Crime They Dont Match the Case Facts

    28. Contradictions: The police investigation strongly suggested that Ms. Manville was killed on her early morning walk. Frank admits to killing her between 1-2 pm a time he had an air-tight alibi. He stated that he met the victim on the way back from the store to his house. This was not the location of the murder scene.

    29. Contradictions 4. The Crime scene location drawn by Frank on a map was not where Manvilles body was found. 5. Frank is told victim is shot with a BB gun, this information should have been withheld to verify confession. 6. Frank continues to deny his involvement in the murder and then states he cant remember and is shown crime scene photographs by Vasile.

    30. Why we would Consider Franks Confession Unreliable In the police video Frank is not providing any new information. The police have shown him photographs of the victim and then ask leading questions about the body. Then these same police officers testify in court that Frank had knowledge of the crime only the guilty would know.

    31. Frank Did Not Know: What happened to the Gun. Frank does not say the victim is shot until he is told by the police How many times he shot the victim If the Gun was damaged in any way. (A fact only to the police and the real killer.) Did not know how the victim was dressed until he was shown the photographs of the crime.

    32. The Police ask Frank on the Video Tape a Leading Question: Was Ms. Manville wearing any special clothing? Frank: Not that I Remember. What were you wearing? Frank: I dont remember. I think a t-shirt and jeans

    33. In conclusion Today, Investigators Crough and Sennett will say they only interrogated Frank because he failed the polygraph. Why did they test a person that was cleared years earlier with no additional evidence against them? Why were the charts from Franks polygraph never located?

    34. The Police Theory was that this was a Premeditated Revenge Killing. IT WAS NEVER DISPUTED IF FRANK WAS THE KILLER, THAT HE WALKED TO THE CRIME SCENE. SO BY FRANKS OWN ADMISSION WHY WAS HE DRESSED FOR A SUMMER DAY, THE VICTIM DRESSED FOR WINTER?