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Nutritional Diseases

Nutritional Diseases

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Nutritional Diseases

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  1. Nutritional Diseases 4-H Veterinary Science Extension Veterinary Medicine Texas AgriLife Extension Service College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences Texas A&M System http://aevm.tamu.edu

  2. Objectives • Discuss the importance of water in the animal diet • Discuss the need for energy in the animal diet • Discuss the importance of minerals in animal diets • Discuss the importance of vitamins in animal diets • Describe the signs of protein deficiency • Describe the signs of a phosphorus deficiency • Describe the signs and causes of grass tetany • Describe the signs and causes of milk fever • Describe the signs of vitamin and mineral deficiencies • Give examples of nutritional diseases in cats, cattle and horses • Discuss conditions that create increased nutritional needs

  3. Nutrition is important • Health maintenance • Energy • Affects all animals • If improper nutrition • Recognize changes • Appearance • Behavior • Identify cause • Correct problem

  4. Diet • The usual food and drink of a person or animal • Nutrient • A source of nourishment

  5. Diets are comprised of nutrients • Proteins • Carbohydrates • Fats • Minerals • Vitamins • Water • Depends on • Animal • Activity

  6. Add Additional Nutrients • Cold weather • Parasite infestations • Reduced appetite • Chronic disease • Pregnancy or milk production

  7. Undernourished animals • Improperly fed • Symptoms • Changes in body weight • Low • Thin appearance • Hair coat • Dull and rough • Activity • Weak and depressed

  8. Requirements for Proper Nutrition • Water • Energy • Minerals • Vitamins

  9. Water • Essential • 60% makeup • Continually lost • Constantly replenish • Maintain homeostasis • 60% balance

  10. Water requirements • Digestive process • Ruminants • Physiological development • Milk production • Diet • Supplements

  11. Problems • Dehydration • Excessive loss of water from the body or from an organ or body part, as from illness or fluid deprivation • Due to • Diarrhea • Kidney diseases • Sick • Refusal to drink

  12. Solution • Re-hydration • IV fluids • Stomach tube

  13. Energy • Function • Growth • Body movement • Found in • Proteins • Carbohydrates • Fats

  14. How supplies • Metabolic breakdown of diet • Fat deposits • Normal conditions • Roughage (producers) • Good quality

  15. Working animals • Supplement • Protein • Careful with overfeeding protein to pregnant animals

  16. Minerals • Definition • Any of the inorganic elements, as calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, or sodium, that are essential to the functioning of the human body and are obtained from foods

  17. Some minerals • Calcium • Bone structure • Cell performance • Muscle contraction • Blood clotting • Phosphorus • Organ structure • Nutrient transport • Energy utilization

  18. Iron • Necessary for the transport of oxygen (via hemoglobin in red blood cells) and for oxidation by cells (via cytochrome) • Anemia • Copper • Magnesium • Muscle cramps • Constipation

  19. Potassium • Critical for the normal functioning of the muscles, heart, and nerves • Controlling activity • Smooth muscle (digestive tract) • Skeletal muscle • Cardiac muscle • Transmission of electrical signals throughout the nervous system

  20. Normal conditions • Good pastures • Fertilized • Problems • Drought • Non-fertilized fields • Correct • Supplements

  21. Dogs and cats • Commercial foods balanced • All meat diets • Need supplementation

  22. Vitamins • Function • Proper cell function • Source • Body produces • Supplements

  23. Found in roughage • Vitamins A,D and E • Produced by • Ruminants • Vitamins • B • C • K • Skin – sunlight exposure • Vitamin D Vitamin D deficiency (rickets)

  24. Examples of Nutritional Diseases and Disorders • Protein Deficiency • Without enough protein • Problem • Underweight • Weak • Symptoms • Swelling under • Throat • Brisket area • Underline • Fluid balance is upset

  25. Phosphorus Deficiency • Good pastures and feeds ok • Problems with unfertilized pastures • Symptoms • Unthrifty • Lame • Stiff • Pica • Compulsive eating of non-nutritive substances

  26. Grass tetany • Aka Grass Staggers • Magnesium deficiency • Problem • Grazing lush grass • Low Mg, High K, N • Interferes with absorption in digestive tract

  27. Symptoms • Excitability • Inability to stand • Stiff muscle convulsions • Death • Treatment • Mg injection • Prevention • Have supplements available

  28. Milk Fever • Low blood calcium • Hypocalcemia • Symptoms • Loss of appetite • Depression • Muscle tremors • Grinding teeth • Muscular paralysis • Lies on sternum • Head to side • Possible death

  29. Treatment • Calcium injection • Also occurs in dogs and horses • Trembling • Panting • Nervousness • Convulsions • Death

  30. Vitamin A deficiency • Source • Commercial feeds • Green pasture • Good hay • Problems • Skin and eye problems • Abortions • Retained placentas • Weak newborns • Night blindness • Correction • Supplement • Good quality hay

  31. Secondary Hyperparathyroidism • High phosphorus, low calcium diets • Affects • Livestock on high-bran diets • No supplements or hay • Pets • All meat diets • No supplements

  32. Symptoms • Horses • Bones thicken • Head • Face • Pets • Bones • Weak • Flexible

  33. Taurine deficiency • Cats • Amino acid • Symptoms • Eye problems • Blindness • Weakening heart muscle • Problem • Cats eating dog food

  34. Bloat in Cattle • Rumen produces gases • Cattle eructate (belch) • Types • Frothy bloat • Free-gas bloat • Problem • Can’t belch

  35. Treatment • Passing tube • Abdominal wall puncture • Drugs

  36. Colic in Horses • Intestinal problem • Occurs when • Change in diet • Intestinal disease • Lodged material

  37. Symptoms • Obvious pain • Rolling • Kicking • Profuse sweating • Treatment • Laxatives • Walking • Surgery

  38. Founder (laminitis) • Problem • Improper feeding • Overfeeding of grain • Bacterial toxins • Affects hoof wall • Causes • Hoof • Inflammation • Pain • Lameness • Depression • Loss of appetite • Slow, painful walk

  39. Treatment • Horses • Laxatives • Cattle • Flush feed from rumen • Large stomach tube • Surgery