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  1. Towards an Integrated Framework for Coastal Eco-Cities:EU-Asia perspectivesAuthors: P. Divarakan, V. Kapnopoulou, E. McMurtry, M. Seo, L. Yu

  2. Contents • Introduction • Main Aspects for Comparison • Transferability • Recommendations and Findings • Limitations and Future Works

  3. Coastal Eco cities: guidance documents Eco-cities working towards international Development • UN Habitat Sustainable Cities Programme • Millennium Development Goals • Local Agenda 21 • World Bank: • Managing emerging cities that are under sever resource constraints • Natural • Physical • Administrative • Technical

  4. 1st January 2012-31st December 2014 • Climate change diplomacy • Eco-cities • Migration Integration • Social Cohesion • Human trafficking • Maritime Piracy and security • Food security

  5. Case studies: Helsingborg, Sweden • Population: 130,000 • EU CONCERTO initiative • Eco-Dwellings, Eco-Rehabiltation • Renewable Energy supply • Energy efficiency in buildings • Polygeneration • Integration of energy supply and demand • Technological innovation

  6. Case studies:TianjinEco-City, China • New build project on a deserted salt farm • 34sq Kilometres • 350,000 residential capacity • Estimated completion: 2020 • Land use planning • Transport planning • Green (vegetation) and blue (water) networks • Includes industrial districts, public buildings and residential communities

  7. Framework • Attributes successes and failures to factors • Social, cultural, financial, legal and environmental challenges are examined • “Good practice and challenges” • Identify key areas for recommendation

  8. Contents • Introduction • Main Aspects for Comparison • Green Buildings • Transportation • Energy Supply • Waste Management • Coastal Infrastructures • Legislative Framework • Financial Aspects • Key Performance Indicators • Transferability • Recommendations and Findings • Limitations and Future Works

  9. Green Building • Comparison on green building certifications Tianjin Eco-City Sweden • GBES: Evaluation Standard for Green Building • Miljöbyggnad: Environmental Building (Swedish) • BREEAM: BRE Environmental Assessment Method • LEED: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  10. Transportation • Comparison between transportation sector

  11. Transportation • Comparison between transportation sector Source: Dargay, et. al. (2007)

  12. Transportation • Comparison between transportation sector • The European Commission proposed alternative fuels policy • Biogas infrastructures are well established in Sweden, Helsingborg • Air pollutant emissions of electric vehicles depend on region’s power plant mix. • In Tianjin Eco-City, large portion of energy comes from the renewable energy (at least 20%). Source: Trendsetter (2003), USEPA (2013)

  13. Energy Supply • Objective • Prioritization of renewable energy • Biogas in Helsingborg • Wind and solar energy in Tianjin • Heating Source • Tianjin Eco-City: 2% from distributed independent energy source • Helsingborg: 19% from distributed independent energy source

  14. Energy Supply • Solar energy: not applicable in Helsingborg with short sunshine hours. • Wind energy: most cost effective with lest GHG emissions. • Biogas for Tianjin: enough organic waste supply. • Ideal renewable energy source depends on local context. • Renewable source: Biogas V.S. Solar and wind

  15. Waste Management • Tianjin Eco-City • Helsingborg

  16. Waste Management • Waste Recycleand treatment • Wastetreatment methods:Recycling, biological treatment, waste incineration, landfill • Waste Recycled: • 48% in Helsingborg • 60% in Tianjin • Waste incineration: • 51.6% inHelsingborg • <40% in Tianjin • Low landfill rate

  17. Waste Management • Truck V.S. Pneumatic collection system • Less GHGemissions of Pneumatic system • Difficulty on Scale-out for Pneumatic system • Biological treatment techniques • Helsingborg: Anaerobic digestion for biogas • Tianjin Eco-City: Aerobic digestion to digest organic waste • Waste incineration and recycling • Disadvantages of waste incineration • Waste prevention and recycling is preferred to incineration

  18. Coastal Infrastructures Helsingborg Tianjin Eco-City No threat by sea level rise No actions were taken Immediate threat by sea level rise Bears the highest risk from coastal flooding in China 100% of the population and urban area of Tianjin would be affected by coastal flooding No action were taken towards achieving coastal resilience

  19. Tianjin Eco-City-Suggested Actions: coastal resilience

  20. Coastal Infrastructures In order to reach the goal of 10% of electricity supply from wind power an offshore wind farm is proposed to Tianjin Eco-City. • Tianjin Eco City-Suggested Actions: exploitation of the coastal offshore area According to the Graph, the offshore wind farm has the largest total cost and lowest GHG emissions in all four renewable energy sources.

  21. Legislative Framework: Contract Arrangement Helsingborg Tianjin Eco City Contract type: Framework Agreement It is a “smarter way” to purchase works or supplies. In individual contracts (call-offs) there is not need to repeat the procurement process again- Reduced bureaucracy In the case of the project being conceived as a research/development opportunity or simply as a “purchase of works”, lies completely in the perception of the contracting authorities Regarding the “bureaucracy” element, the pre-existence of mutual trust among the contracting members is imperative. Contract type: Integrated Project Describe projects with multi-partners which are formed to support objective driven research. Necessary to have a series of well documented agreements–Increased bureaucracy

  22. Financial Aspects Helsingborg Tianjin Eco City Public (Chinese and Singapore resources)-Private funds FundingScheme Financial Benefits • GDP per capita (in USD $) of Helsingborg-comparison with Sweden • GDP per capita (in USD $) of Tianjin- comparison with Shanghai and Beijing Public (EU contribution)-Private funds

  23. Key Performance Indicators Energy Waste Water Transportation Economic Land use Infrastructure Social Air Quality • Renewable power production / total power consumption • Non fossil fuel in primary energy • Reduction of fossil fuels for heating compared to 2005 • Renewable energy utilitarian rate • Proportion of renewable energy (excluding transportation) • Renewable/total energy (transportation) • Utilization rate of clean energy • Renewable and Clean Energy • Carbon • Sectorial Energy Use • Energy Security • Renewable and Clean Energy • Carbon • Sectorial Energy Use • Energy Security Energy Waste Water Transportation Economic Land use Infrastructure Social Air Quality

  24. Contents • Introduction • Main Aspects for Comparison • Transferability • Recommendations and Findings • Limitations and Future Works

  25. Transferability Green Buildings Energy Supply Waste Management Transportation Coastal Contract arrangement Stakeholder engagement

  26. Recommendations and Findings For policymakers. Legislative framework of both the projects are very different. Opportunity for research and knowledge transfer. Stakeholder engagement For developers. Good understanding of local context Green building standards Renewable energy sources Current state transportation State of the coastal sector Transferability of green technologies and practices.

  27. Limitations and Future works Study is based on just one example from both Europe and Asia. Limited resources to create firm guidelines and standards for suitable city schemes across European and Asian borders. Findings of this project would be supported by a widening of the scope to include more cities from Europe and Asia.

  28. Q&A