Contribution of Japanese Fishery Management System to Targets 6 & 11 of Aichi Biodiversity Targets Mitsutaku MAKINO National Research Institute of Fisheries Science Fisheries Research Agency, Japan
Japanese are FISH EATERs Amberjack and mackerel Red sea breams.People cut into fillets in 3500 years ago 2 http://www2.edu.ipa.go.jp/gz
Fisheries management today(Fisheries Law of 1949) • Fisheries Cooperative Associations (FCAs), the organizations of local small-scale fishers, have the priority in the allocation of Fishing Rights. • Elected representatives from local fishers organize a Fisheries Coordinating Committee, which has strong authority in planning fisheries operations at the prefecture level. • Detailed use/conservation rules are autonomously set by FCAs according to the local conditions (social and ecological). Resource management by the resource users themselves
Institutional features of fisheries management in Japan Local fishers are engaged not only in fisheries operations, but also in resource management and a part of ecosystem conservation. Seen from the “Western” system, local resource users are playing a part of public roles which should be done by the government. Therefore, this system is often called as “Co-management”. Makino(2011) Fisheries Management in Japan, Springer 4
Various types of MPAs in Japan Legal MPAs (LMPAs) Autonomous MPAs (A-MPAs) Areas which are protected by local recourse users themselves
A-MPA case 1: Siretoko World Natural Heritage area • Southernmost limit of seasonal ice floes • Main industries: Fisheries & Tourism • About 40% of local people works for fisheries industry. Shiretoko WNH
Since 1995 Spawning ground Since 2005 A-MPAs set by fishers to protect Walleye PollackNote: MPA is just a component of the management portfolio (e.g., season, operation time, # of nets, mesh size, TAC, etc.)
A-MPA Case 2: Coral reef protection in Yaeyama, Okinawa • Local Fishers, a scuba association, and a prefectural fisheries research station cooperates to set AMPAs for protection of coral reefs. Yaeyama Google • Not only fisheries but also diving are prohibited in A-MPAs. • Cooperation between fisheries sector and tourism sector. http://bre.soc.i.kyoto-u.ac.jp
A-MPA Case 3: Sea grass MPA in Tokyo Bay • The most urbanized bay in Japan • In this area, only 500m of natural coast is left out of 140 km coastline. Tokyo Bay • Environmental NGO, Scuba divers, local fishers, local residents, schools, researchers, local and national government, etc., work together for restoring sea grass bed at the coastal area (wide-ranging sectors).
Views of exactly the same area in the Feudal era Unless the objective of MPAs or ecosystem conservation is to go back to the original wilderness hundreds or thousands of years ago, local fisheries is not something to be eliminated from the ecosystems, but the indispensable component of the local ecosystem (Makino 2011 )
Lessons from Japanese A-MPA case studies * All local users of ecosystem services (i.e. fishers, tourists, education, leisure, NPO, etc. ) , scientists and government officers can cooperate together for Target 6 and 11. * A wide variety of MPAs could be established autonomously to match to the particular social-ecological systems, objectives, and issues to be tackled in each regions. CBD “Ecosystem based approach” Principle 2: Management should be decentralized to the lowest appropriate level. Thank you very much
References • Garcia S, Kolding J, Rice J, Rochet MJ, Zhou S, Arimoto T, Beyer JE, Borges L, Bundy A, Dunn D, Fulton EA, Hall M, Heino M, Law R, Makino M, Rijnsdorp AD, Simard F, and Smith DM (printing) Reconsidering the Consequences of Selective Fisheries. Science. • Makino M (2008) Marine Protected Areas for the Snow Crab Bottom Fishery off Kyoto Prefecture, Japan, In Case Studies in Fisheries Self-governance (FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 504), Rome, Italy, 211-220. • Makino M (2011) Fisheries Management in Japan: Its institutional features and case studies. Springer, London. • Makino M, Matsuda H (2005), Co-Management in Japanese Coastal Fishery: It’s Institutional Features and Transaction Cost, Marine Policy.Vol29: 441-450. • Makino M, Matsuda H (2011) Ecosystem-based management in the Asia-Pacific region, In (Ommar RE, Perry RI, Cochrane K, and Cury P. Ed.s) World Fisheries: A Social-Ecological Analysis, Wiley-Blackwells, 322-333. • Makino M, Matsuda H, Sakurai Y (2009) Expanding Fisheries Co-management to Ecosystem-based management: A case in the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage, Japan, Marine Policy. 33: 207-214. • Tomiyama M, Komatsu T and Makino M (2008) Sandeel Fisheries Governance in Ise Bay, Japan, In Case Studies in Fisheries Self-governance (FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 504). Rome, Italy, 201-210.
3. Summary • The basic principle of fisheries management in Japan is “fisheries management by the resource users themselves.” • Local fishers are engaged not only in fishery operations, but also in resource management and a part of ecosystem conservation (co-management). • There are wide ranging types of MPAs, from No-take to Sustainable uses, or from Legal to Autonomous. • Autonomous MPAs can flexibly match to particular objectives and problems in each regions (CBD Ecosystem approach Principle 2).
MPA categories by IUCN (Dudley, 2008) • MPA does not mean only No-take Zone or No-entry Zone • There is no priority among these categories
The Japanese definition of MPAs （Strategy for the Conservation of Marine Biodiversity, 2011） “Marine areas designated and managed by law or other effective means, in consideration of use modalities, aimed at the conservation of marine biodiversity supporting the sound structure and function of marine ecosystems and ensuring the sustainable use of marine ecosystem services.”
Examples of autonomous management activitiesThere are many fish gathering forest activities all over Japan. (http://www.jf-net.ne.jp/hkyubetsu/sigen.htm) (http://www.jf-net.ne.jp/amhiranaigyokyo/)
Examples of autonomous management activities Eco-friendly detergents sold by organization of fishers (http://www.jf-net.ne.jp/fsgyoren/work1.html) Coastal clean ups by fishers’ family (http://www.minato-j.fks.ed.jp/seito/gyouji/shizen/shizen.html)
Fish scale produced by local FCA (http://www.jf-net.ne.jp/cbgyoren/sigen.html) Autonomous resource assessment and setting Individual Catch Quota for sea cucumber fishers (Mutsu-bay).
Examples of autonomous management activities （Tomiyama, et al. 2008) Local fishers and researchers cooperatively conduct resource assessment, and set TAC every year (Sandeel fishery in the Ise Bay) Photo: Dr. Tomiyama
Examples of autonomous management activities Ecologically and biologically sensitive areas are set as no-take zones. (Snow crab bottom trawling in Kyoto prefecture) （Makino, 2008)
Local fishers are the Decision-makers Core fishers are attending about 15 meetings every month http://www.pref.aomori.jp http://www.pref.iwate.jp http://www.pref.mie.jp
Landings 1. Chum salmon 2. Walleye pollock, 3. Kelp, 4. common squid, 5. thornyhead,6. Pacific cod, 7. greenling, 8. pink salmon, 9. sea urchin, 10. Octopus dolfleini
Supple: the latest study on Ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) • In 2008, IUCN established the Fisheries Expert Group Serge Garcia （Chair, Former Director of FAO） Jake Rice （DFO, Canada） Despina SYMONS（EBFM, EU） Annadel Cabanban （IUCN） Augustyn （Zaire） Bonnie Mccay （RutgersUniv. USA） Hazel Oxenford （Exeter Univ. UK） Hein Rune Skjoldal （IMR, Norway） JeppeKolding（Bergen Univ., Norway) Qisheng Tang （Yellow Sea Institute, China） Serge Beslier （Former DG-Fish, EU） Mitsutaku Makino （FRA, Japan）
Balanced harvesting Balanced harvesting: a fishing strategy that maintains ecosystem structure by keeping fishing pressure moderate and distributing it across ecosystem components (species, sizes, and trophic levels) in proportion to their productivities HARVEST CATCH TL4 TROPHIC CHAIN TL3 How could this be proven? Achieved? Controlled? TL2 Trophic level 1
Modeling: Ecosystems (Garcia, et al. printing)
Conclusions 2 1 2 2 3 2 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 Fishing pressure Small Sizes Large 2 4 4 4 Small Species Large Fishing pressure Future: balanced harvest ? Balanced fishing 3 3 6 9 3 3 6 9 Fishing pressure Small Sizes Large 1 1 2 3 Small Species Large Fishing pressure Present: excessive selective
This paper was accepted at the Policy Forum of Science（Garcia, et al. printing）. And will be published in the early Feb. 2012. • Accordingly, the tradition of the South-East Asiaand South Asia, i.e., catching and eating widely from small fish to large fish in various ways, will attract attentions from the world.
How to fill gaps between sectors? • The Chair of the environmentalNGO in the Tokyo Bay sea grass restoration activity says “even with very wide gaps in values or beliefs among participants, I think we can at least share the importance of education for local children… in that sense, we cannot omit children’s experiences in catching and eating seafood in the field. This is very important.” Makino (2011)
Two classification of Japanese MPA • Legal Marine Protected Area（LMPA）： Established directly based on a legal framework: e.g. Nature Conservation area (Natural Conservation Law), Natural Park (Natural Park Law), Common Fisheries Right Areas (Fisheries Law) • Autonomous Marine Protected Area（AMPA）： Established based on local initiatives and set on an Issue-specific basis There are more than one thousand AMPAs in Japan