Child labour in Vietnam By: Lisa Bang
What is Child labour? • Child labour is a source of income for poor families • Forces young children to go to work to earn money for the families poverty. • Some families depend on the income that they receive from child labour • Most do not receive a wage instead are receiving food and materials as money.
Child labour has been limited in Vietnam during the pass years still remains as a problem; mainly in rural areas About 4 million working children has been decreased to about 1.6 million Studies indicate that child labour is not considered the major problem of Vietnam towards 6-10 year old children Child labour has fallen dramatically during most recent years. Working conditions in rural areas has been improved, Child labour
Child labour • Although the problem brought on by child labour is fairly small, the child labourers are still at risk of becoming street children or of being placed at moral hazard. • Child labour in rural areas has a greater impact on girls than boys. • Part-time labour is available for the child labourers.
Child labour • children have to go to school and to work continuously • work is not violating the regulations of the Labour Code related to juvenile labour • Child labour is mostly found in households and small enterprise sectors mainly in rural areas. • A major cause of child labour in Vietnam is due to poverty.
Child labour • Only a small amount of child labour receives a wage or is self-employed. • A small number of children are employed in the industry/construction and services sectors. • There is no evidence of child labour in the export-oriented manufacturing industries.
Child labour • need of National Strategy on Poverty Alleviation • focus on child labour and school attendance • have not begun the demographic transition to slower population growth • did not experienced significant rises in income per head.
Child labour • greatest deductions in child labour came in income expenditure groups 3 and 4 • reflects the influence of rising incomes in recent years in decreasing child labour. • child labour is declining more rapidly among boys, than child labour among girls.
Child labour • level of gender bias is small compared with most other Asian countries • need to be analyze to reasure girls benfit are completely from empowered economic conditions that lead to further decreasing in child labour.
Child labour • proportion is small • indicates enforcement of the Labour Code will have to continue to be a priority goal. • Vietnamese laws on child labour conform to international standards and provide a comprehensive framework for the regulation of child labour.
must be carefully monitored as industrial employment increases as self-employment in the service sector, could place children at risk of moral hazards in the future. Hazardous work is most common for the 15-17 age group in the present There are less children workers with the age around 11-14 no children with the age of 6-10 employed in the occupations hazardous jobs the incidence of child labour is greatest among the poor working children can be found in all income groups. millions of children are involoved in hazardous and dangerous work that damages their development. Child labour
Working conditions • Although working conditions and child labour has improved. Some children are still needed to work and earn money for his/her family. • Some jobs require very hazardous, dangerous chemicals/objects, which will be harmful to young children • this will bring a major risk of disability to the child • Will bring Difficulty of movements in the future
Working conditions • A number of child are doing illegal and hazardous workwhich is not permitted. Theres children are mostly around age 15-17, yet 11-14 years old are also following the footsteps of illegal legislation, which is an bad issue.
These children are to work after school, which gives them somewhat of education for better knowledge. This is only allowed for child with an age of 11-14 Does not exceed 4 hours per day. These types of work are strongly encouraged to children This will provide the child somewhat of knowledge/skill for future careers. if the hours are excessive, it may reduce the benefits of education Must be planned, carefully analyzed, observed by the government. The biggest rise is marginal part-time child workers For groups that are around the age of 15-17 groups are encouraged to go to school Not able to go to school due to certain circumstances Education-Partime
Education-Partime • School enrolments are now rising in lower and upper secondary schools. • Vietnam always had very high participation in basic primary education. • The result of the amount has increased the school attendance. • Part-time work stops students from coming to school. • Need to drop out of school in order to work in the economy.
Action • Save the Children is working to end exploitative child labour. • If children were banned from mainstream jobs, many would turn to illegal, dangerous work. • Save the Children supports projects that raise family income so children aren't forced to work. • Where children do work, we try to protect them from exploitation and find ways they can combine work with education.
Action • Save the Children believes it is vital that children are protected from dangerous and exploitative work. We are helping children by: • Tackling poverty that pushes children into work.
Action • Consulting children and communities to find ways of taking children out of highly dangerous work without lowering incomes or limiting skills. • Working with governments and private companies to find ways to end harmful child labour, for example by developing appropriate legislation.
Facts • 36,000 child labourers are illegally employed • observers believe that it is actually an estimatiant of 360,000, which is 10 times the number. • About 995,564 children are economically active. • The estimatant given by the government is about 29.000 children in total under the age of 15 were believed to be victims of exploitative labour. • That estimate may have been lower, due to the fact most children are working in the informal sector.
Action • Approximitly 12,675 children under 15 years are working. • There are about 28,850 child labourers.) • 1995- 791,000 economically active children, 448,000 girls and 343,000 boys (ages 10-14),which is 9.12% of this age group. • 1,349,052 children between the ages of 13-15 were economically active.
Usually in urban areas, children works in small family owned businesses, but in rural areas, children usually work on farms and agricultural realted activities.
Supporting good quality, relevant schooling to give children alternatives to harmful work. • Improving working conditions in cases where children have to work.
Research • Many agencies are involved in researching on child labour and children's work. • need to maximize effects. • Child labour will keep growing in urban areas. • involved in improving education brought to children. • Trying to includes skillful ways to break out of poverty • Continue to monitor child labour
Bibliography • http://www.unicef.org/reseval/evaldb/9a2.html • http://www.globalmarch.org/cl-around-the-world/copy-news-archive/vietnam.php3 • http://www.globalmarch.org/cl-around-the-world/copy-news-archive/vietnam-not-happy.php3 • http://www.globalmarch.org/cl-around-the-world/copy-news-archive/vietnam-nike.php3 • http://www.globalmarch.org/cl-around-the-world/vietnam-cp.php3
Bibliography • http://www.globalmarch.org/worstformsreport/world/vietnam.html • http://www.ucw-project.org/resources/future_survey_information.html • http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/textonly/simpoc/vietnam/ • http://www.antislavery.org/homepage/campaign/childlabourcamp.htm • http://www.nber.org/digest/jul02/w8760.html?tools=printit
Bibliography • http://papers.nber.org/papers/w8760 • http://money.cnn.com/2002/02/07/economy/childlabor_trend/ • http://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/8760.html • http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/simpoc/question/ • http://fsweb.wm.edu/charles/monroe/projects00/norris.html