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HOSE REINFORCEMENT PowerPoint Presentation
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  3. KMC HOSE REINFORCEMENT • Knitting Machinery Corporation was founded in 1963 by John Greczin. After 38 years of building and improving, including 11 patents, the company is proud to have a world-wide customer base. • Now a Crawford Group Company, our headquarters is located in Cleveland, Ohio. We have manufacturing facilities in Cleveland and Greenville, Ohio.

  4. OUR MISSION • In-Line Hose Manufacturing • - Our mission was to produce a machine that would provide reinforcing on a hose, without distortion, as it was being extruded and then co-extrude over the reinforcement. This would result in a completed product at production line speed.

  5. OUR MISSION • We also wanted to produce a single machine that would provide our customers a solution to their varied reinforcement needs. • -Various needs include: • Different size of hose • Knitting • Spiral Wrap • Combinations of Knitting and Spiral Wraps.

  6. PHILOSOPHY • In producing a hose we want to minimize any distortion from the manufacturing process. It is necessary to keep the hose straight and to minimize twists from yarn tension. Requiring precise line control. • KMC is minimizing those outside forces in knitting head design, by allowing a relaxed knit with tension applied as needed. • KMC is minimizing those outside forces in spiral head design, by using a low tension design.

  7. OUR ACCOMPLISHMENTS • KMC has manufactured machines to do just that. • Our machines are able to provide reinforcement to an extruded hose and then co-extrude over the reinforcement; AND one machine will allow the customer to knit, spiral wrap, or run various sizes of hose.

  8. OUR ACCOMPLISHMENTS • Our machines are currently being used to produce reinforced hose around the world. • We have designed and built the machines that have allowed us to encompass the world with reinforced hose.

  9. TYPE OF HOSE • There are 4 basic types of hose. • Low Pressure - Non-Reinforced • Low/Medium Pressure - Knit • Medium Pressure - Spiral • High Pressure - Braid

  10. LOW PRESSURE HOSE Non-Reinforced

  11. LOW/MEDIUM PRESSURE Knit • Knit is produced by using a continuous line process at a rate of 30-60 feet per minute.

  12. MEDIUM PRESSURE HOSE Spiral • Spiral is produced by using a continuous line process at a rate of 60-200 feet per minute.

  13. TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT • KMC provides four basic types of reinforcement. • Spiral Wrap • Plain Stitch • Lock Stitch • Combination Radial/Plain Stitch





  18. MACHINE HEADS • KMC uses two types of machine heads: • Spiral Heads • Knitting Heads • Both the Spiral Head and the Knitting Head can be exchanged with one another.

  19. SPIRAL HEAD • Spiral wrap application is of a face-to-face design with a tightly-controlled environment. The Spiral process is accomplished by wrapping a specified number of yarns through the rotating yarn guide; as the hose passes through at a controlled rate. The heart of our Spiral Head is the yarn guide and bushing.

  20. SPIRAL HEAD • The yarn guide comes in incremental sizes. Each one with the various feeds required. • To provide a tight-wrap pattern, we use bushings that enable precision control of the hose. • We also use tension plates in conjunction with the yarn guide immediately around the hose. • The type, size, and/or denier of yarn effects the tension of the machine.

  21. SPIRAL HEAD • Many times customers may have specific requirements for tensioning; KMC will make recommendations. • Optional • There is a three-part rotary tensioned head that allows for an infinite tension adjustment.

  22. SPIRAL (speed) OUTPUT • The feed is determined by taking the circumference of the hose divided by the desired spacing between the yarns. The linear coverage is determined by the distance the hose moves through the spiral head in one revolution divided by the feed. The yarn angle is a determinant factor in the burst strength of the hose. 90º = total coverage.

  23. KNITTING HEAD • Design of KMC knitting heads include these features: • Self contained unit • Compact • Removable • Low tension yarn flow • Precision cams • Precision adjustments

  24. KNITTING HEAD • The Knitting Head is designed for both ease of setup and maintenance. All adjustments of the Knitting Head are of special micrometer threads to maintain parallelism and concentricity. There is also an alignment adjustment that gives the ability to realign the head in the event it would be damaged by mishandling.

  25. KNITTING HEAD • The flow of the yarn and the design of the cam provides excellent needle life while also making possible the ability to knit at increased speeds.

  26. ITEMS OF IMPORTANCE • SIZE OF THE KNITTING HEAD SET-UP • KMC has various sizes of knitting head set-ups: • The knitting heads are available in sizes of 2 1/2”, 3 1/2”, and 5”. • Size the knitting head as close as possible to the hose inner tube outside diameter.

  27. BURST STRENGTH & EXPANSION • Knitting a tight sock on the hose reduces expansion. • Obviously, burst strength is directly effected both by the amount of yarn applied and how it is applied. • Burst strength and expansion are two separate issues.

  28. KNITTING (speed) OUTPUT • The output of the knitting process is determined by taking the feed or the number of lobes on the cam, which gives the number of stitches per revolution of the yarn table, times the distance between the stitches. The distance is determined by the movement of the hose through the machine per revolution of the yarn table.

  29. THE KNIT PROCESS: FEEDS • Each Feed is the result of a Cam Lobe. • Ex. An 8 Feed has 8 Lobes. In one rotation, an 8 Feed Cam will produce 8 courses of knit on the hose.

  30. PRODUCT STRUCTURE • The total feed determines the number of courses of knit on the diameter of the hose per revolution. The needles determine the lines of knit linearly with the hose.

  31. NEEDLES • The needles are what produces the loops or stitches. The number of needles around the circumference of the hose determines the number of loops. 5 Needles 7 Needles

  32. FEEDS • You can then see, as the hose moves faster through the Knitting Head the Courses will be further apart. The slower the hose moves, the closer the Courses will be. Slower Faster

  33. PLAIN STITCH • Plain Stitch reinforcement is produced by a single track cam with 4, 6, or 8 lobes. • Plain Stitch allows for more expansion and less separation than the lock stitch. PLAIN STITCH CAM


  35. LOCK STITCH • Lock Stitch, or Skip Stitch, is produced by using a double track cam with 8 or 12 lobes. Each track containing half of the feeds; thus, allowing an alternating stitch to be produced. • Lock Stitch can run at a higher speed and has less expansion than the plain stitch. LOCK STITCH CAM


  37. RADIAL/PLAIN STITCH • This reinforcement is produced by spiral wrapping with one head and following it with a knitting head in the same machine; at the same time, in either direction.


  39. MACHINES • KMC offers a wide range of machines to fit the customers needs. • The two basic kinds are for: • Batch Process • Continuous Line Process

  40. BATCH PROCESS • The batch-process method involves making an inner tube then placing it in pans, reels or in tubs. The tubs are then taken to the hose reinforcement area, where the reinforcement is applied. After reinforcement, it is placed back in the tubs; requiring more labor and subjects the tube to twisting, pulling, and/or contamination. This can cause the tube size to vary in shape and wall thickness.

  41. BATCH PROCESS • The next step in the batch-process method involves passing the tube through the extruder cross-head. At this time, a vacuum can be applied to help achieve adhesion between the inner and outer cover. In every stage of the batch-process the quality must be checked carefully, since the finished product may not be completed for several days or weeks. The batch-process also requires much more floor space than the continuous line process.

  42. BATCH PROCESS • The batch-process, however, is excellent for short runs and just in time production. • Batch Process Machines are: • KM-72-S • KM-90-NV

  43. KM-72 • This is an economical machine that is used in the batch-process method. • The machine is available in a variety of sizes: 2.5” and 3.5” bore diameter. • KM-72 is available with a soft start or variable speed drive.

  44. KM-90-NV • This is a state of the art vertical machine for batch-process method. • The machine is available in a variety of sizes: 2.5”, 3.5”, and 5” bore diameter. • KM-90-NV offers large yarn capacity, variable takeoff and machine drive.

  45. CONTINUOUS LINE PROCESS • A line set-up and control must be precise in every aspect. A precision line produces a precision product. • A precision line is also dependent on proper puller placement. Keep the puller immediately following the spiral/knitter for precise reinforcement.

  46. CONTINUOUS LINE PROCESS • Things to consider in a continuos line process. • Type of cooling (if needed) • Type of bonding of the inner and outer layers. Hot bonding or solvent bonding. • Is the heat or solvent compatible with the yarn. • KMC has three machines that are used in a Continuous Line Process. They are: • KM-89-SD • KM-89-SS • KM-89-SS-HS

  47. KM-89-SD

  48. KM-89-SD • This is a single deck machine used only for knitting. It is a 56” machine to allow for adequate yarn clearance and is of a very heavy-duty construction. • A standard machine is supplied with cat-pullers, yarn interrupt detect, stitch interrupt detect, and guiderolls.

  49. KM-89-SD • The bore size is 6” in diameter and is supplied with a knitting head of 2.5”. The knitting head is available in either a plain or lock stitch. • Knitting heads come in sizes of 2.5”, 3.5” and 5”. • The knitting heads can quickly be removed and interchanged with other knitting heads of various sizes and/or stitches.

  50. KM-89-SD • The machine allows for a large yarn capacity of approximately 15 pounds per yarn package. • For special applications, send yarn specifications to KMC.