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Avoidance PowerPoint Presentation

Avoidance

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Avoidance

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  1. Avoidance Ch 15

  2. Avoidance Contingency Before: Sid will hear a loud tone in 3 sec Behavior: Sid straightens up After: Sid won’t hear a loud tone in 3 sec

  3. Avoidance Contingency Before: Sid will hear a click immediately Behavior: Sid maintains an erect posture. After: Sid won’t hear a click immediately

  4. Avoidance Contingency Before: You will have an accident soon Behavior: You drive carefully After: You won’t have an accident soon

  5. Avoidance Contingency • The immediate, response-contingent prevention of an aversive condition resulting in an increased frequency of that response

  6. Avoidance Contingency Before: You will soon stumble and fall Behavior: You walk perfectly After: You won’t soon stumble and fall

  7. Avoidance of an Aversive Event • Example: overcorrection following training on eye contact… • Try using reinforcers first • Meet ethical standards

  8. Avoidance of an Aversive Event Before: Jimmy will have to overcorrect in 2 sec Behavior: Jimmy looks at the instructor After: Jimmy won’t have to overcorrect in 2 sec

  9. Avoidance of Loss Contingency • The immediate, response-contingent prevention of loss of a reinforcer resulting in an increased frequency of that response.

  10. Avoidance of Time-Out Before: The child will soon have to leave the classroom for 3 minutes Behavior: The child works hard After: The child won’t soon have to leave the classroom for 3 minutes

  11. Avoidance of Reprimands • Reprimands are specific • BE careful about the dead man… • Interpretation of contingencies

  12. Punishment???>>WRONG Before: Joyce receives no reprimands Behavior: Joyce goofs off After: Joyce receives a reprimand

  13. Goofs off • Large response class • Does not pass dead man’s test

  14. Avoidance Contingency Before: Joyce will soon receive a reprimand Behavior: Joyce studies After: Joyce won’t receive a reprimand soon

  15. Escape vs. Avoidance • Prevention vs. removal • Avoidance: the response prevents an aversive condition from being received • Escape: the response causes an aversive condition to be removed

  16. Where does avoidance come from? • What happens first?

  17. Why is avoidance behavior resistant to change?

  18. Avoidance following escape Escape Before: Taste of hot sauce After: Reduce taste of hot sauce Behavior: Drink water, cough After: You will not have hot sauce soon Before: You will soon have hot sauce Behavior: “Please, no hot sauce” Avoidance

  19. Cued Avoidance Contingency Before: Buzzer is on After: Buzzer is off Escape Behavior: Rat presses lever Before: Shock will come on in 3 sec After: Shock won’t come on in 3 sec Avoidance

  20. Establish a buzzer as a learned aversive condition buzzer shock No buzzer No shock

  21. Buzzer • The neutral buzzer becomes a warning stimulus through use of the pairing procedure • The pairing procedure brings into play the value altering principle

  22. Continuous Response Avoidance Before: Sid will hear a click immediately Behavior: Sid maintains correct posture After: Sid won’t hear a click immediately

  23. Noncued Avoidance Before: Shock will come on in twenty seconds Behavior: Rat presses the lever After: Shock will not come on in twenty seconds

  24. Avoidance of Loss of a Reinforcer vs. Punishment by Removal of a Reinforcer

  25. Avoidance of Loss of a Reinforcer vs. Punishment by Removal of a Reinforcer

  26. Warning Stimulus vs. Discriminative Stimulus • Warning stimulus • A stimulus that precedes an aversive condition and thus becomes a learned aversive stimulus • Discriminative stimulus • A stimulus in the presence of which a response will be reinforced

  27. Before (Warning stimulus) buzzer After Buzzer is off Escape Behavior Rat presses lever Sdee Light is on Before Shock will come on in 3 sec After Shock won’t come on in 3 sec Avoidance Extinction Before (Warning stimulus) buzzer After Buzzer is on Behavior Rat presses lever Sdelta Light is off Before Shock will come on in 3 sec After Shock will come on in 3 sec Extinction