Present Perfect, Past Perfect, & Future Perfect February 1, 2010 By: Peggy Lien Bunlom P. Domanski SoYoung Park
Present Perfect Something happened (or never happened) before now, at unspecified time in the past. [has/have + past participle]
They have moved into a new apartment I have never seen snow. For Example
“Ever”, “Never”, “Already”, “Yet”, “Still”,&“Just”arefrequently used with the present perfect. Describe your experience Have you evercelebrated Halloween? I have driven many times in the past month.
Since or for since +a particular timefor +a duration of time We often use since or for to expresses a situation that began in the past and continues to the present I have been here since seven o’clock. I have lived in Vancouver for 2years.
Check if task is completed Still waiting for the action to happen. Have you eaten your lunch? Yes, I have eaten my lunch. No, I haven’t eaten it yet.
Multiple Actions at Different Times To talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. The army has attacked that city five times. I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
Active / Passive Many tourists have visited that castle. Active That castle has been visited by many tourists. Passive
Present Perfect Continuous [has/have + been + ~ing] You have been waiting here for two hours. Have you been waiting here for two hours? The tense express the duration of an activity that began in the past and continues action to the present.
Past Perfect [had + past participle] I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Saipan. I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet. We are talking about two different events at two different times in the past.
We had had that car for ten years before it broke down. By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years Duration Before Something in the Past We talk about something started in the past and continued another in the past.
She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996. Specific Times with the Past Perfect
If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska.Correct • You had previously studied English before you moved to New York. • Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?
Active / Passive George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license. Active Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license. Passive
Past Perfect Continuous [had been + ~ing] • She had been working at that company for three years. • She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business. Something started in the past and has continued up until another time in the past.
Future Perfect Something will happen before a specific time in the future. [will have + past participle] The train will leave the station at 9am. You will arrive at the station at 9.15am. When you arrive, the train will have left.
Future Perfect Continuous [will have been + ~ing] Something will continue up until a particular event time in the future. You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives. He will be tired when he arrives. He will have been travelling for 24 hours..
Adverb Placement “always”, “only”, “never”, “ever”, “still”, & “just”. • You willonlyhave learned a few words. • Will you onlyhave learned a few words? • You areonlygoing tohave learned a few words. • Are you onlygoing tohave learned a few words?
Active / Passive • They will have completed the project before the deadline. Active • The project will have been completed before the deadline. Passive
Summary “Present Perfect” describes unspecific time in the past before now. “Past Perfect” is talking about two different events at two different times in the past. Something happened before a specific time in the past. “Future Perfect” shows something will happen before a specific time in the future.
Reference http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/presentperfect.html English Grammar by Betty Schrampfer Azar edurizon.com/about-2/my-delta-assignments/