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MS1 Module 2

MS1 Module 2

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MS1 Module 2

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  1. MS1 Module 2 • Major hardware components of a computer • Types of computers • Storage Technology • Input/Output Technology • Multimedia • Software • Types • Development

  2. Processing & Memory Devices

  3. Central Processing Unit (CPU) • Control Unit - controls and coordinates other components of a computer. • Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU) - performs the arithmetic and logical operations on data.

  4. Figure 3.1: Computer System Components

  5. Primary storage • Primary storage is used to store program instructions and data, for example, RAM and ROM. • RAM is volatile while ROM is not. Program instructions and data stored in RAM will be lost when the computer’s power is switched off.

  6. Figure 3.5: Basic Types of Memory Chips

  7. Primary storage • A bit (binary digit) is the smallest unit of storage. • A byte (made up of eight bits) is used to represent a single character.

  8. Machine cyclesimulation

  9. Types of Computers • Mainframe - large computers with a large amount of RAM in order to handle massive amounts of data and processes • Minicomputer - usually have more RAM and faster CPUs than microcomputers in order to serve several users simultaneously

  10. Types of computers • Microcomputers: • most of them use Intel’s x86 family of microprocessors

  11. Microcomputers • 8088 XT • 80286 • 80386 • 80486 • Pentium • Pentium II • MMX (multi media extensions) • Pentium III & IV

  12. A Typical Microcomputer (motherboard) • RAM - Random Access Memory slots • ROM - Read Only Memory • Expansion Slots • CPU socket • Onboard Sound/LAN • Onboard Video

  13. Memory Characteristics and Functions: Storage Capacity

  14. Processor Technology Trends • Client/server Computing - Processing is performed partly at the workstation (client) and partly at the main computer (server).

  15. Processor Technology Trends • Parallel processing - With the advance in technology, microprocessors, processing of more than one instruction at a time by using multiple processors at the same time

  16. Figure 3.7: Massively Parallel Processing

  17. Types of computers • Supercomputers: • Very powerful computers for extremely complex computations • Faster than the fastest mainframes • Make use of parallel processing

  18. Secondary Storage • Magnetic Tape • Magnetic Disk • Hard Disk • Mirroring • RAID • Zip Drive

  19. Secondary Storage • Floppy Disks • 3 1/2” • Optical Disks • CD-ROM • WORM

  20. Fig 3.11

  21. Input and Output devices

  22. Data • Data can be human or machine readable • Data entry converts human readable data into machine-readable form • Data input transfers machine-readable data into the system • Source data automation

  23. Input Batch & Online • Batch - Data are captured in source documents, then input and stored on transaction files. Processing of data occurs some time later. • Key to tape/disk

  24. Input Batch & Online • Online - Data are input and stored into the computer when they are available. No source documents are used • Touch Screen • Light Pens • Bar Code Readers • Mouse • Track Ball

  25. Source Data Automation (SDA) • Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) • Optical Character Recognition (OCR) • Bar Coding • Voice Input

  26. Multimedia Computers • Fig 3.16

  27. Output • Impact Printers • Character • Dot Matrix • Non Impact Printers • Thermal • Laser • Ink Jet

  28. Multimedia • The integration of two or more types of media technologies such as text, graphics, sound, video, or animation into a computer application • Mostly used in training and entertainment • Kiosks (drivers license, internet)

  29. Software: Systems and Application Software

  30. Software • System Software • Operating Systems • Dos, UNIX or LINUX, Windows 95, 98, NT, ME, XP, Mac OS X • Application Software

  31. Table 4.1: Classifying Software by Type and Sphere of Influence

  32. Figure 4.2: Operating system as interface between application software and hardware

  33. Table 4.3: Popular Operating Systems Cross All Three Spheres of Influence

  34. Table 4.5: A Comparison of Proprietary and Off-the-Shelf Software

  35. Table 4.5: A Comparison of Proprietary and Off-the-Shelf Software (continued)

  36. Personal Application Software

  37. Table 4.6: Examples of Personal Productivity Software

  38. Table 4.6: Examples of Personal Productivity Software (continued)

  39. Table 4.9: Examples of Enterprise Application Software

  40. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) • ERP software: a set of integrated programs that manage a company’s critical business operations • ERP software can support global operations – so it must support many languages, legal entities, and currencies

  41. Table 4.8

  42. Benefits of ERP Systems • Eliminate inefficient systems • Improved data access for decision making • Facilitate the adoption of improved work processes • Supply chain management

  43. The Downside of of ERP Systems • Costly • Changed business processes • Employee resistance

  44. Programming Languages • Commands and statements combined according to a particular syntax • Different languages have different characteristics

  45. Second-Generation Languages • Assembly languages • Assemblers • Symbolic language

  46. Third-Generation Languages • Greater use of symbolic code • Statements are more English-like • Easier to learn • Resulting program slower & don’t use RAM as efficiently • Examples: BASIC, COBOL, C, C++, FORTRAN

  47. Language Translators

  48. Fig 4.20 – interpreter

  49. Figure 4.18: How a Compiler Works