MS1 Module 2 • Major hardware components of a computer • Types of computers • Storage Technology • Input/Output Technology • Multimedia • Software • Types • Development
Central Processing Unit (CPU) • Control Unit - controls and coordinates other components of a computer. • Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU) - performs the arithmetic and logical operations on data.
Primary storage • Primary storage is used to store program instructions and data, for example, RAM and ROM. • RAM is volatile while ROM is not. Program instructions and data stored in RAM will be lost when the computer’s power is switched off.
Primary storage • A bit (binary digit) is the smallest unit of storage. • A byte (made up of eight bits) is used to represent a single character.
Types of Computers • Mainframe - large computers with a large amount of RAM in order to handle massive amounts of data and processes • Minicomputer - usually have more RAM and faster CPUs than microcomputers in order to serve several users simultaneously
Types of computers • Microcomputers: • most of them use Intel’s x86 family of microprocessors
Microcomputers • 8088 XT • 80286 • 80386 • 80486 • Pentium • Pentium II • MMX (multi media extensions) • Pentium III & IV
A Typical Microcomputer (motherboard) • RAM - Random Access Memory slots • ROM - Read Only Memory • Expansion Slots • CPU socket • Onboard Sound/LAN • Onboard Video
Processor Technology Trends • Client/server Computing - Processing is performed partly at the workstation (client) and partly at the main computer (server).
Processor Technology Trends • Parallel processing - With the advance in technology, microprocessors, processing of more than one instruction at a time by using multiple processors at the same time
Types of computers • Supercomputers: • Very powerful computers for extremely complex computations • Faster than the fastest mainframes • Make use of parallel processing
Secondary Storage • Magnetic Tape • Magnetic Disk • Hard Disk • Mirroring • RAID • Zip Drive
Secondary Storage • Floppy Disks • 3 1/2” • Optical Disks • CD-ROM • WORM
Data • Data can be human or machine readable • Data entry converts human readable data into machine-readable form • Data input transfers machine-readable data into the system • Source data automation
Input Batch & Online • Batch - Data are captured in source documents, then input and stored on transaction files. Processing of data occurs some time later. • Key to tape/disk
Input Batch & Online • Online - Data are input and stored into the computer when they are available. No source documents are used • Touch Screen • Light Pens • Bar Code Readers • Mouse • Track Ball
Source Data Automation (SDA) • Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) • Optical Character Recognition (OCR) • Bar Coding • Voice Input
Multimedia Computers • Fig 3.16
Output • Impact Printers • Character • Dot Matrix • Non Impact Printers • Thermal • Laser • Ink Jet
Multimedia • The integration of two or more types of media technologies such as text, graphics, sound, video, or animation into a computer application • Mostly used in training and entertainment • Kiosks (drivers license, internet)
Software • System Software • Operating Systems • Dos, UNIX or LINUX, Windows 95, 98, NT, ME, XP, Mac OS X • Application Software
Figure 4.2: Operating system as interface between application software and hardware
Table 4.5: A Comparison of Proprietary and Off-the-Shelf Software (continued)
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) • ERP software: a set of integrated programs that manage a company’s critical business operations • ERP software can support global operations – so it must support many languages, legal entities, and currencies
Benefits of ERP Systems • Eliminate inefficient systems • Improved data access for decision making • Facilitate the adoption of improved work processes • Supply chain management
The Downside of of ERP Systems • Costly • Changed business processes • Employee resistance
Programming Languages • Commands and statements combined according to a particular syntax • Different languages have different characteristics
Second-Generation Languages • Assembly languages • Assemblers • Symbolic language
Third-Generation Languages • Greater use of symbolic code • Statements are more English-like • Easier to learn • Resulting program slower & don’t use RAM as efficiently • Examples: BASIC, COBOL, C, C++, FORTRAN