Chapter 13 Learning Packet Early African and American Civilizations
Chapter 13 Section 1 Graphic Organizer- page 2 of packet North Africa- Sahara DESERT South Africa- Kalahari PHYSICAL SETTING Steep Plateau Rivers with waterfalls SUB-SAHARAN Few invasions-Little Trade
On the floor of the Tropical Rain Forest Dry grassland Savanna JUNGLE More than 100 inches of rain a year SAHEL Spread very easily PHYSICAL SETTING DISEASES GREAT RIFT VALLEY Located in Eastern Africa Characteristic: many narrow lakes
VILLAGES REDISCOVERING THE AFRICAN PAST WOMEN Did primarily agricultural work LEADERS MATRILINEAL Were chiefs and elders Ancestors traced through your mother Village becomes the center of African society and culture
Scientists who study languages LINGUISTS Africa’s first spoken language PATTERNS OF LIFE BANTU Developed 2,000 years ago CULTURAL DIFFUSION WITH ASIANS ORAL TRADITIONS Began around 300 AD Stories passed by word of mouth Learned of banana and xylophone Source of most African history
Africa Map- page 4 Mediterranean Sea Sahara Desert Sahel (savanna) Tropical Rain Forest Great Rift Valley Atlantic Ocean Kalahari Desert Indian Ocean
Chapter 13 Section 2 Notes (page 5 of your packet) Cush • Nubia- south of Egypt • Trade Center- connected the Red Sea to the Nile River Valley • Conquered- Egypt around 750 BC
Chapter 13 Section 2 Notes • Meroe- Capital city and iron working center. • Decline- for unknown reasons they began to decline around 150 BC
Chapter 13 Section 2 Notes East Africa • Monsoon Winds- helped them trade throughout the Indian Ocean. • Traded- gold, slaves, and ivory. • Swahili- spoken language that helped increase trade.
Chapter 13 Section 2 Notes Axum • Controlled- trade routes through the Ethiopian highlands • Traders- Elephants, rhino horns, tortoise shells, incense, and spices.
Chapter 13 Section 2 Notes • Christianity- Introduced in 325 AD by King Ezana • Muslims- Took over Axum around 700 AD
Chapter 13 Section 2 Notes Zimbabwe • Gold- found along the Zambezi River around 900 AD • Karanga- Ruling class that forced commoners to mine for gold • Decline- around 1400 because of a food shortage
Chapter 13 Section 2 Notes West Africa • History Discovered- through Muslim traders and oral traditions. • Traded for Salt- from the Sahara Desert.
Chapter 13 Section 2 Notes • Social Structure- top royal family, merchants, farmers, fishers, cattle breeders, then slaves. • Many kingdoms- Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
Page 12 of your packet A LAND BRIDGE allowed the first people to migrate to the Americas. The first Americans survived by HUNTING and GATHERING food. ROCKY Mountains cover the western portion of North America. North America’s major transportation route was the MISSISSIPPI River.
Bottom of page 12- South America Over time, the people of the Americas began to grow their own food, this event was called the NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION. South America’s major transportation route was the AMAZON River. ANDES Mountains cover the western portion of South America. Agriculture quickly spread and by 1492 Americans farmed from Canada to Argentina.
North America 600-1600 Government by a variety of small tribes to very complex societies. Similar religious beliefs in the Great Spirit. Economy influenced by the environment. Trade links to other groups. People and Empires in the Americas
People and Empires in the Americas Mesoamerica: Maya 300-1200 • Government by city-state kings. • Religion plays a major role in society and rule. • Trade links between city-states and other Mesoamerican groups. • Math and Astronomy develop to support religious beliefs • Pyramid builders • Written language using hieroglyphs
People and Empires in the Americas Mesoamerica: Aztec 1200-1521 • Government by warrior kings. • Religion plays a major role in society and rule. • Trade links between tribute states and other Mesoamerican groups. • Human sacrifice practiced for religious offerings. • Pyramid builders. • Pictorial written language • Destroyed by Spanish weapons and diseases.
People and Empires in the Americas South America: Inca 1400-1532 • Government by theocracy- sun-god king • Religion plays a major role in society and rule • Social welfare state cares for the people. • Extensive road system links the country together. • Destroyed by Spanish weapons and diseases.
North American Tribes- geography directly effects cultures • NORTHWEST TRIBES • Different jobs: fishermen, woodworkers, weavers • Used totem poles to describe tribal history. • GREAT PLAINS • Hunted buffalo • Used the entire animal • Only tribes that used teepees. • SOUTHWEST TRIBES • Built permanent settlements. • Used adobe “sun dried” bricks • Built apartment style buildings into cliffs for defense. • EASTERN WOODLAND • Mound builders • Mississippian culture lived here 1000 years ago (Cahokia Mounds) • Iroquois Constitution (united many tribes)
10 facts you need to know for your Chapter 13 Test African History before 1492 • Trade flourishes because of geography. • Oral traditions interpreted by Linguists are the main source of its history. • Isolated for thousands of years because of geographic barriers. • Several climate zones can be found throughout the continent. • Europeans tried to ignore Africa’s history and they were convinced that only whites could have created these civilizations.
10 facts you need to know for your Chapter 13 Test • American History before 1492 • First settled around 10,000 years ago when Asians crossed a land bridge into North America. • 2. Many Native Americans became expert farmers following the Neolithic Revolution. • North American culture was directly influenced by the geography of each region. • Early tribes of Mexico and South America were eventually conquered by the Spanish in the 1500s. • Europeans tried to ignore America’s history, just as they had in Africa.
Today’s assignment- pages 17 through 24 of your packet STOP Test next class meeting. Use pages 304 and 307 to assist you on the geography assignment