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Training & Development Needs Analysis

Training & Development Needs Analysis. Training . Overview. Models of Learning Reinforcement Theories Cybernetic & Information Theories Cognitive Theories & Problem Solving Experiential Learning Cycle The ‘learner’ and the organisation’ : transfer

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Training & Development Needs Analysis

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  1. Training & Development Needs Analysis Training

  2. Overview • Models of Learning • Reinforcement Theories • Cybernetic & Information Theories • Cognitive Theories & Problem Solving • Experiential Learning Cycle • The ‘learner’ and the organisation’ : transfer • Model of Training Needs Analysis (TNA) : individual and organisational levels of analysis • Special training and development needs : diversity management

  3. Learning ‘Training and developmental activities are designed to bring about changes in behaviour’ Arnold, Cooper & Robertson (1998) Learning is ‘a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience’ Bass & Vaughan (1966) • How do we learn ? Psychological theories...

  4. Reinforcement Theories • Pavlov (1904) ‘Classical Conditioning’ - making dogs dribble • Skinner (1965) ‘Operant Conditioning’ - teaching pigeons ‘ping-pong’ • Watson & Rayner (1920) ‘little Albert’ • Nord (1969) application of Skinner’s ‘positive reinforcement’ principles to org./mgmt practices • N.B. Conditioning by punishment ?

  5. Cybernetic & Information Theories How information is received and monitored (‘’human thermostats’’ - Stammers & Patrick, 1975) Skills Analysis - what ‘cues’ or ‘stimuli’ an experienced worker is being guided by (e.g. typist : ‘hunt & peck’)

  6. Cognitive Theories & Problem Solving • Reflect the way in which we learn to recognise and define problems or experiment to find solutions • trial & error • deductive reasoning • information seeking • Kohler (1973) Theory of ‘Insight Learning’ or ‘Discovery Learning’ (e.g. Chimps, bananas and sticks or Archimedes ‘Eureka!!’)

  7. Gagné’s Hierarchy of Learning • 8 major varieties of learning, hierarchically related, each building on earlier, more simple abilities (which therefore act as prerequisites for more complex abilities) • Signal Learning (classical conditioning) • Stimulus-Response Learning (operant conditioning) • Chaining (connecting sequence of 2+ S-R units) • Verbal Association (learning ‘verbal’ chains) • Discrimination Learning (different responses to similar stimuli) • Concept Learning (common response to different stimuli in gp) • Rule Learning (a chain of 2 or more concepts I.e. if ‘A’ then ‘B’) • Problem Solving (recombining old rules into new ones)

  8. Experiential Learning Kolb (1974) : ‘Learning Cycle’ Concrete Testing experience Observations implications of & Reflections concepts in new situations Formation of abstract concepts & generalisations Honey & Mumford (1986, 1992) : ‘Learning Styles’ • activist : open-minded, actively involved, bored with implementation • reflector : ponder experiences, cautious, ‘back-seat’, ‘bigger picture’ • theorist : adapt & integrate observations, vertical, logical, hierarchical • pragmatist : try out new ideas to see if they work in practice

  9. The ‘Learner-Organisation’ Interaction (I) • Learner Motivation • Otto & Glaser (1970) : taxonomy of motivational factors in learning : achievement motivation, anxiety, approval, curiosity, acquisitiveness • Knowledge of results (feedback) • form of reinforcement • Extrinsic KR • Intrinsic KR • Learning curves & plateau • Attitude formation & change • predispose learners to action • having ‘harmonious attitudes’ (Festinger’s concept of cognitive dissonance, 1957) • group discussion, providing new information

  10. The ‘Learner-Organisation’ Interaction (II) Age • less brain cells, speeded performance declines • short-term memory deteriorates (increased errors in cognitively complex tasks) • Welford (1962) older less able to cope with large amounts of information and • vocab. and comprehension increase (reasoning and numerical ability test scores decreased) • Vernon (1960) rate of decline slowest in originally high scorers. • Stimulation • Education & Training offset decline in abilities

  11. Transfer • ‘Training transfer occurs when new learning is used in new settings beyond those employed for training purposes’ (Arnold, Cooper & Robertson, 1998) • Positive Learning Transfer • ‘when learning that has already taken place on one task assists later learning on another’ • vertical positive transfer : one subject acts as a basis for another (e.g. maths to statistics) • lateral positive transfer : occurs when the same type of stimulus requires the same response (e.g. flight simulators) • N.B. ‘On-’ vs ‘Off-the-job’ Training • Negative Transfer • ‘when an old learning or past experience can hinder performance on a new task; when the same stimuli requires a different response’ (e.g. driving on right hand side)

  12. Factors that assist Transfer Individual • Understanding of general principles • facilitated by discovery learning; issue of physical and psychological ‘fidelity’ • Overlearning • practising beyond the level of minimum competence • Association • getting the trainee to associate new learning with other, previous, learning. Organisational • Supportive culture ? • Congruent norms/values/attitudes

  13. Goldstein (1986, 1991, 1993)Model of Training Needs Analysis

  14. Stage One : Establishing Organisational Commitment and Support Identify whose co-operation is needed, i.e. management, workers, clients, other stakeholders. ‘Project Parameters’ : rationale of approach(es), time needed, numbers of people involved, admin. (& other) support needed. Glaser & Taylor (1973) • collaborative approach • highly motivated, ‘team-like’ interface • early and active contacts between parties Goldstein (1993) advocates a ‘liaison team’

  15. Stage Two : Organisational Analysis of Training Needs • Central Issue = ‘how well is the organisation doing?’ N.B. Organisation does not have to be underperforming to need development • Importance of the ‘transfer’ climate : system-wide factors that may support/undermine training • Goldstein (1993) : 4 stages of OA • Specify training goals (3 types) • Determine training climate • Identify legal constraints (vertical and horizontal) • Determine resources available

  16. Stage Three : Requirement Analysis Goldstein (1993) : 6 stages • determine target job to be assessed • identify how needs assessment data best collected • interviews, observations, surveys, tests, records, SME’s, focus groups, work samples, etc. • determine who is going to provide necessary info • ascertain key points of contact and their responsibilities • anticipate problems and difficulties • develop a TNA protocol

  17. Stage Four : Needs AssessmentTask Analysis • TA for TNA should provide a job specification (KSA’s/competencies required). Training spec. derived from difference between employees’ current and ideal levels • Reid & Barrington (1997) : 3 main TNA TA approaches (task identification & task element analysis) • Comprehensive Approach • Key Task Analysis • Problem-Centred Approach • Task fidelity (physical and psychological) • e.g. stages and ‘key points analysis’, manual skills analysis, job learning analysis, faults analysis, benchmarking, Critical Incidents Technique.

  18. Stage Five : Person Analysis • Who in the organisation needs training • What kind of training is needed • KSA deficits - must have suitable performance criteria • performance appraisal ratings • 360-feedback ratings • KSA’s of new recruits • Development Centre ratings • self-assessments

  19. Special Training Needs • Retraining • learning how to learn • the ageing workforce • Managing Diversity • cross-cultural training (increasing globalisation, multi-cultural societies) • Equal Opportunities legislation • Training the Unemployed • long-term unemployed (more than 27 weeks continuously) • causes of long-term unemployment (physical, psychological & environmental factors)

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