Distinguish the two alternative pathways that sensory stimuli may travel when triggering an emotional response.
Nonverbal Communication Most of us are good at deciphering emotions through non-verbal communication.
Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal Behavior Women are much better at discerning nonverbal emotions than men.
Detecting and Computing Emotion Most people find it difficult to detect deceiving emotions. Even trained professionals like police officers, psychiatrists, judges, and polygraphists detected deceiving emotions only 54% of the time. Dr. Paul Elkman, University of California at San Francisco Which of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine?
Hindu Dance In classical Hindu dance, the body is trained to effectively convey 10 different emotions. Network Photographers/ Alamy
Culture and Emotional Expression When culturally diverse people were shown basic facial expressions, they did fairly well at recognizing them (Ekman & Matsumoto, 1989). Elkman & Matsumoto, Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expression of Emotion
Emotions are Adaptive Darwin speculated that our ancestors communicated with facial expressions in the absence of language. Nonverbal facial expressions led to our ancestor’s survival. Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Analyzing Emotion Analysis of emotions are carried on different levels.
The Effects of Facial Expression If facial expressions are manipulated, like furrowing brows, people feel sad while looking at sad pictures. Courtesy of Louis Schake/ Michael Kausman/ The New York Times Pictures Attaching two golf tees to the face and making their tips touch causes the brow to furrow.
Experienced Emotion Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions. Most of them are present in infancy, except for contempt, Shame, and guilt. Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Patrick Donehue/ Photo Researchers, Inc. Tom McCarthy/ Rainbow Lew Merrim/ Photo Researchers, Inc. Marc Grimberg/ The Image Bank Nancy Brown/ The Image Bank Michael Newman/ PhotoEdit
Dimensions of Emotion People generally divide emotions into two dimensions.
Fear Fear can torment us, rob us of sleep, and preoccupy our thinking. However, fear can be adaptive – it makes us run away from danger, it brings us closer as groups, and it protects us from injury and harm.
Learning Fear We learn fear in two ways, either through conditioning and/or through observation. Watson (1878-1958) By Monika Suteski
The Biology of Fear Some fears are easier to learn than others. The amygdala in the brain associates emotions like fear with certain situations. Courtesy of National Geographic Magazine and Laboratory of Neuro Imaging (LONI) at UCLA. Art and brain modeling by Amanda Hammond, Jacopo Annese, and Authur Toga, LONI; spider art by Joon-Hyuck Kim
Do Now: 1) Review Homework2) Activity 13-33) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=71Ai_3_XfPA
Anger Anger “carries the mind away,” (Virgil, 70-19 B.C.), but “makes any coward brave,” (Cato 234-149 B.C.).
Causes of Anger • People generally become angry with friends and loved ones who commit wrongdoings, especially if they are willful, unjustified, and avoidable. • People are also angered by foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jams, and aches and pains.
Catharsis Hypothesis Venting anger through action or fantasy achieves an emotional release or “catharsis.” Expressing anger breeds more anger, and through reinforcement it is habit-forming.
How to deal with anger? • WAIT (don’t react, count to ten) • Vent in a HEALTHY manner= talking, exercise, playing an instrument
Cultural & Gender Differences • Boys and girls respond to anger differently • Anger breeds prejudice. • Individualist versus communal cultures express anger differently Wolfgang Kaehler
What are the advantages to being happy? Happy people: make decisions easily, are more cooperative, are more energized, and are healthier Write down five people you know well. For each person, write down whether they are happy/unhappy and selfish/unselfish
Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon When we feel happy we are more willing to help others.
Subjective Well-Being Subjective well-being is the self-perceived feeling of happiness or satisfaction with life. http://web.fineliving.com
Emotional Ups and Downs Over the long run, our emotional ups and downs tend to balance. Courtesy of Anna Putt
Wealth and Well-being Many people in the West believe that if they were wealthier, they would be happier….
Does Money Buy Happiness? …But this is not the case
Happiness & Satisfaction Subjective well-being (happiness + satisfaction) measured in 82 countries shows Puerto Rico and Mexico (poorer countries) at the top of the list.
Values & Life Satisfaction Students who value love more than money report higher life satisfaction.
Happiness & Prior Experience Adaptation-Level Phenomenon:our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, lights, income) relative to a neutral level defined by prior experience Satisfaction has a relatively short half-life
Happiness & Others’ Attainments Happiness is not only relative to our past, but also to our comparisons with others. Relative Deprivationis the perception that we are relatively worse off than those we compare ourselves with.
Do Now: Write down the top 5 stressors in your life. Compare with a partner
Stress Stress is any circumstance (real or perceived) that threatens a person’s well-being. Lee Stone/ Corbis When we feel severe stress, our ability to cope with it is impaired.
Stressors Stressors are stimuli that cause stress 3 types of stressors: Major Life Changes Daily Hassles Catastrophes
Stressful Life Events Catastrophic Events:Catastrophic events lead individuals to become depressed, sleepless, and anxious.
Significant Life Changes The death of a loved one, a divorce, a loss of job, or a promotion may leave individuals vulnerable to disease.
Daily Hassles Rush hour traffic, long lines, job stress, and becoming burnt-out are the most significant sources of stress and can damage health
Stress and Stressors Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works When short-lived or taken as a challenge, stressors may have positive effects. However, if stress is threatening or prolonged, it can be harmful.
Stress and Causes of Death Prolonged stress combined with unhealthy behaviors may increase our risk for heart disease, cancer, stroke, and chronic lung disease.
Behavioral Medicine Psychologists and physicians have developed a behavioral medicine that integrates behavioral knowledge with medical knowledge. Health psychology studies stress-related aspects of disease.
Social Readjustment Rating Scale • Holmes Rahe- SRRS (Social Readjustment Rating Scale) to measure stress • measures major life changes by life change units- positive events (marriage) count as much as negative events (getting fired)
The Stress Response System: FAST Canon proposed that the stress response is a fight-or-flight response: epinephrine and norepinephrine from the inner adrenal glands increasing heart and respiration rates -mobilizing sugar and fat, and dulling pain.
The Stress Response System: SLOW The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland also respond to stress (slow) by triggering the outer adrenal glands to secrete glucocorticoids (cortisol).
General Adaptation Syndrome Selye injected rats with ovarian extract: • increase in size of adrenal cortex • decrease in size of thymus • bleeding ulcers Interpret these results.
General Adaptation Syndrome According to Selye, a stress response to any kind of stimulation is similar. The stressed individual goes through three phases. EPA/ Yuri Kochetkov/ Landov