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Protecting Sources of Drinking Water

Protecting Sources of Drinking Water

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Protecting Sources of Drinking Water

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  1. Protecting Sources of Drinking Water Chuck Kanetsky, EPA Region 3

  2. Goal: Improve Source Water Quality • Minimize risk to public health through risk reduction in source water areas • Develop prevention & protection strategies, achieve substantial implementation of strategies for individual CWS

  3. RISK RISK RISK RISK PROTECTIONBARRIERS RISK MONITORING/ COMPLIANCE RISK PREVENTION RISK MANAGEMENT INDIVIDUAL ACTION

  4. Clean Water Act (CWA) 1972 Water Quality Standards Discharge Permits Waste Water Treatment Wetlands Nonpoint Source Pollution Assessment of water Assessment of impaired waters Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) 1974 Standard Setting for Drinking Water Public Water Supply Supervision Underground Injection Control Sole Source Aquifer Program Wellhead Protection Program Source Water Assessment Program EPA’s Water Quality Laws

  5. Source Water Assessment Programs • Required through SDWA Section 1453, 1996 Amendments • Comprehensive assessment / prioritization of potential threats for every Public Water Supply System (PWS) • All States developed programs for EPA approval • Required extensive public involvement in program design • Wellhead Protection Programs cornerstone of SWP Programs • Funded through Drinking Water State Revolving Fund • Diversity from State to State/system type by system type • Challenges • No requirement for protection • Resources • Numbers of systems change

  6. SWAP Basics • State assessment program plans were due in early 1999 • EPA approval within 6 months of submittal • States assess sources for all public water systems by 2003 • 21,000 public water systems in EPA - Region 3, servicing > 25 million people

  7. Delaware $674,604 District of Columbia $405,778 Maryland $1,764,090 Pennsylvania $5,327,070 Virginia $2,944,240 West Virginia $1,255,880 Source Water Assessment Dollars

  8. Key SWA Elements • Delineation • Contaminant Source Inventories • Susceptibility Analyses • Public participation and public access to assessment results

  9. Intake SWAP – Delineation • Immediate area of impact • Well • 5 year time of travel • 1 mile radius • Surface water • Watershed boundaries

  10. SWAP – Contamination Source Inventory • Permit Compliance System • Toxic Release Inventory • Underground Storage Tanks • RCRA • Superfund • Land Use Information

  11. SWAP – Susceptibility Analysis • Analysis of risk • Hydrogeology/hydrology • Understanding of contaminants • Effectiveness of existing protection programs

  12. SWAP – Public Participation • Public access to assessment results • Educate public on potential problems • Protection activities

  13. Source Water Assessments Availability • Target completion September 2003 • Region 3 States have completed assessments for about 99.5% of 21,0000 Public Water Systems

  14. Use Assessments for Surface & Ground Water Source Protection • Source water protection strategies to address actual & potential contaminant sources • Target substantial implementation of protection strategies for 50% of CWS and 62% population by 2011

  15. R3 SWAP Findings (GW)DE, DC, MD, PA, VA, WV • Most Prevalent Sources: Ground Water • Commercial/Industrial, Residential Housing, Agriculture • Highest rankings from R3 states: Residential septic systems, UST • Most Threatening Sources: Ground Water • Commercial/Industrial, Residential Housing, Agriculture • Highest rankings from R3 states: UST, septic systems, crop production

  16. R3 SWAP Findings (SW) DE, DC, MD, PA, VA, WV • Most Prevalent Sources: Surface Water • Commercial/Industrial, Agriculture, Wastewater, Transportation • Highest rankings from R3 states: General agriculture, grazing, overall transportation • Most Threatening Sources: Surface Water • Agriculture, Commercial/Industrial, Wastewater • Highest rankings from R3 states: General agriculture, Residential

  17. Strategic Actions • Complete & improve assessments • Use assessments as basis for SW & GW protection plans • Integrate actions: • Federal, State, local • CWA & SDWA • Collaboration among Federal agencies/programs

  18. Water Safe to Drink Measure #: Strategic Target SP-4 National Office Lead: OGWDW Measure Description: Percent of community water systems and percent of the population served by community water systems where risk to public health is minimized by source water protection. (SP-4a) Community water systems: 2011 Target: 50% (SP-4b) Population: National Program Manager Comments: 2011 Target: 62% Target measure; FY 08 State Grant Template measure. SP-4a is a PART measure. Note: “Minimized risk” is achieved by the substantial implementation, as determined by the state, of actions in a source water protection strategy. The universe is the most recent SDWIS inventory of community water systems. * FY 06 national commitment total adjusted to reflect weighted regional commitments. ** 2006 Adjusted is adjustment of the FY 06 commitment to reflect FY 05 results.

  19. Integrate Federal, State & Local Actions • Region 3 pilot projects • Schuylkill Action Network: PADEP, Philadelphia Water Department, EPA • Potomac Partnership: DW utilities, MDE, VDH,VADEQ, DCDOH, ICPRB, WVDHHR, PADEP, EPA • Source Water/UST Collaboration

  20. SAN Structure Reflects Priorities Executive Steering Committee (PADEP, Phila. Water Dept, EPA, DRBC) Universities/Science Planning Committee Funding Coordination Education/ Outreach Monitoring Strategy Data Team INTEGRATED TECHNICAL WORKGROUPS Storm Water Agriculture Watershed Land Protection Collaborative Acid Mine Drainage Pathogen/ Compliance

  21. Cooperative and Voluntary Partnership Improve Source Water Protection Multi-barrier Approach Safe Guard Public Health Potomac Partnership Mission

  22. Strategy Ag/Pathogens DBP Early Warning Emerging Contaminants Urban Funding Potomac Partnership Workgroups

  23. Wellhead Protection • 4 biennial cumulative reports from ’91 – ‘99 • WHP program used by states as foundation for SWP program • WHP biennial data provides benchmark for progress on WHP and SWP • Funded through CWA 106 and SDWA SRF • Integral to groundwater protection in watersheds

  24. Protecting Public Health: Leaking USTs - a major threat to groundwater supplies • MOU with WCMD and EAID. • Underground Storage Tank • Efforts: • Prioritize inspections • Clean up priority tanks

  25. Resources & Funding • Drinking Water State Revolving Fund: grants for SWP staff, wellhead protection projects; loans for surface water protection projects • Clean Water State Revolving Fund: loans for point & nonpoint source projects, land acquisition • CWA grants: Sect. 106, 104(b)(3), 319, 604(b) • Farm Bill

  26. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund The SDWA, as amended in 1996, established the DWSRF to make funds available to drinking water systems to finance infrastructure improvements. Funds are also provided to small, disadvantaged communities and to programs implementing pollution prevention as a tool for ensuring safe drinking water. Nationally about $800 Million (20% State Match)

  27. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund • Grants for SWP staff, wellhead protection projects; loans for surface water protection projects through set-asides • 15 % - Land acquisition, Capacity Development, Wellhead Protection • 10% – Administer or provide technical assistance through SWP programs • 2% Set-a-side – Technical Support For Small Systems

  28. Springdale, PA - Stormwater, UST • Storm event caused a salt storage pile to leach into the ground and into drinking water supply. • Due to leaking UST, benzene contaminated ground water. • Trichloroethylene (TCE) from another source also contaminated GW well. • Springdale needed to improve management of land use.

  29. Springdale, PA continued • The Water Department set-up the Springdale Borough WHP Committee, with guidance from PRWA, and Allegheny County Health Department, to make recommendations to town Council and Planning Division of Allegheny County. • With assistance from PA DEP SWP grant, the Committee developed a WHP plan, approved by PA DEP in 2003. • Established a student education program with brochures and newsletters for residents

  30. Zoning and Ordinances, Town of Townsend, DE • Townsend is in southwestern NCC, in Middletown-Odessa-Townsend (M-O-T) Planning Region. Recently M-O-T has had accelerated growth and development. • Townsend increased area through recent annexations, from original size of 111 acres to 587 acres today. • Result is primary land use inside the town boundaries is “Vacant Developable”

  31. Zoning and Ordinances, Town of Townsend, DE continued • In 2002 the Town adopted a source water protection land use ordinance. • Comprehensive environmental ordinance protects all wetlands, recognizes critical natural resource areas, promotes reforestation and preserves buffers • Requires new building in “water resource protection areas” to discharge all roof runoff into underground recharge systems and limits the surface area that can be covered by asphalt, cement or other impermeable surfaces.

  32. Parkersburg, WV • Prepared a Wellhead Protection Plan assisted by the Great Lakes Rural Community Assistance Program • Participated in the Source Water Assessment Plan • Partnered with the USGS in developing a generic ground water model for water systems which use radial collector wells • Abandoned three city wells by safely and properly closing them

  33. Contact Information Kanetsky.charles@epa.gov 215-814-2735