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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

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  1. Chapter 2 Strategic Planning and the Marketing Process

  2. Chapter Objectives • Distinguish between strategic planning and tactical planning. • Explain how marketing plans differ at various levels in an organization. • Identify the steps in the marketing planning process. • Describe successful planning tools and techniques, including Porter’s Five Forces model, first and second mover strategies, SWOT analysis, and the strategic window. • Identify the basic elements of a marketing strategy. • Describe the environmental characteristics that influence strategy decisions. • Describe the methods for marketing planning, including business portfolio analysis and the BCG matrix.

  3. Why do Planning?

  4. To asses the company’s position [strengths and weaknesses], and the opportunities and threats it faces. To set goals, establish priorities, and develop strategies. To plan the deployment of resources needed to attain the goals selected. To give firm direction. To make sure the goals of all parties are aligned. To ensure that different functional areas have coordinated efforts. To outline potential alternative actions the firm can take. To project costs. To assess performance. Why do Planning?

  5. Marketing Planning: The Basics for Strategy and Tactics • Planning: Process of anticipating future events and conditions and of determining the best way to achieve organizational goals • Marketing planning: Implementing planning activities devoted to achieving marketing objectives

  6. Strategic Planning versus Tactical Planning • Strategic planning: Process of determining an organization’s primary objectives and adopting courses action that will achieve those objectives • Tactical planning: Process that guides the implementation of activities specified in the strategic plan.

  7. Strategic Planning versus Tactical Planning • Top management • Greater proportions of their time engaged in planning • Usually focus their planning activities on long-range strategic issues • Middle level managers • Focus on operational planning; creating and implementing tactical plans • Supervisors • Developing the specific programs to meet goals in their areas of responsibility

  8. Table 2.1:Planning at Different Managerial Levels

  9. Steps in the Marketing Planning Process

  10. Defining the Mission of the Organization • Mission: the essential purpose that differentiates one company from others • The mission statement specifies the organization’s overall goals and operational scope and provides general guidelines for future management actions • “An effective mission statement should be brief enough to fit on a T-Shirt.” – Peter Drucker.

  11. Determine Organizational Objectives • An organization lays out its basic objectives, or goals, in its mission statement • These objectives in turn guide development of supporting marketing objectives and plans • Well-developed objectives should state specific, quantitative intentions along with deadlines for achieving them

  12. Assessing Organizational Resources and Evaluating Environmental Risks and Opportunities • This step involves a back-and-forth assessment of strengths, risks, and available opportunities.

  13. Formulating, Implementing, and Monitoring a Marketing Strategy • Marketing strategy: a firm’s overall program for selecting and satisfying a target market • A marketing strategy is aimed at satisfying consumers in the selected target market through a careful balance of the elements of the marketing mix – each of which represents a subset of the overall marketing strategy

  14. Successful Strategies: Tools and Techniques • All planning strategies have the goal of creating a sustainable competitive advantage for a firm. • An advantage where other companies cannot provide the same offering or value.

  15. Porter’s Five Forces Model

  16. First Mover and Second Mover Strategies • First mover strategy: Theory advocating that the company that is first to offer a product in a marketplace will be the long-term market winner. • Second mover strategy: Theory that advocates observing closely the innovations of first movers and then introducing new products that improve on the original offering to gain advantage in the marketplace.

  17. SWOT is an acronym for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats • A SWOT analysis is a method of studying organizational resources and capabilities to assess the firm’s strengths and weaknesses and scanning its environment to identify opportunities and threats • Strengths reflect Core Competencies – what the company does well

  18. SWOT Analysis

  19. The Strategic Window • A limited period with an optimal fit between the key requirements of a market and the particular competencies of a firm.

  20. Elements of a Marketing Strategy • Blending the four strategy elements of marketing decision-making to satisfy chosen target markets • Product • Price • Distribution • Promotion

  21. Target Market • Group of people toward whom the firm decides to direct its marketing efforts

  22. Marketing Mix Variables • Product Strategy • What goods or services to offer • Customer service • Package design • Brand names • Trademarks • Warranties • Product Life Cycle • Positioning • New-product development

  23. Figure 2.7 • Quaker: Using the Product and the Promotional Strategies to Appeal to the Toastables market

  24. Elements of the Champion Product Strategy

  25. Marketing Mix Variables • Distribution StrategyPlanning that ensures that consumers find their products in the proper quantities at the right times and places. • Physical Distribution • Modes of transportation • Warehousing • Inventory control • Order processing • Marketing Channels • Retailers • Wholesalers

  26. Marketing Mix Variables • Promotional Strategy • Blending together the various elements of promotion to communicate most effectively with the target market • Informing, persuading, and influencing a consumer’s purchase decision. • Main Elements • Advertising • Promotion • IMC – Integrated Marketing Communications that ensure a unified and consistent message

  27. Figure 2.8 • Promoting the Healthful Benefits of Milk

  28. Advertising As a Part of the Pepto-Bismol Promotional Strategy

  29. Marketing Mix Variables • Pricing Strategy • Deals with the methods of setting profitable and justifiable prices • Figure 2.9 • Timex: Offering Customers Style and Durability- at a Lower price

  30. The Marketing Environment –Marketing Concerns: • Competitive • Political – Legal • Economic • Technological • Social – Cultural • Rule of three [P.52] – The three strongest, most efficient companies dominate 70% to 90% of the market. Examples: Fast Food, Cereal, Running Shoes, Airlines, Pharmaceuticules.

  31. Methods for Marketing Planning • Business Portfolio Analysis – evaluate divisions/products to determine strengths and weaknesses • Strategic Business Units (SBUs) are key business units within diversified firms • A division, product line, or single product may define an SBU • Firms redesign their SBUs as market conditions dictate

  32. 3M • Tape Products: A 3M Strategic Business Unit

  33. The Boston Consulting Group Matrix • Market Share/ Market Growth Matrix: a marketing planning tool that classifies a firm’s SBU’s or products according to industry growth rates and market shares relative to competing products • Stars • Cash Cows • Dogs • Question Marks

  34. Figure 2.10 • BCG Market Share/Market Growth Matrix

  35. Chapter 2 Appendix,Addendum Chapters 3, 22 The Marketing Plan

  36. Organizational Planning • Why are we in business? – Vision, Mission • How do we do business? – Values, Climate, Culture • Where are we now? – SWOTs, Competition, Constraints • Where do we want to be? - Strategies • How do we get there? – Tactics, Resources • How do we know we’ve arrived? – Budgets, Controls, Reports, Milestones Addendum Chapter 22, P.672 Gap Analysis

  37. The Marketing Plan • Contains detailed descriptions of the resources and actions needed to achieve stated marketing objectives.

  38. Why do a Marketing Plan? • To obtain external/internal financing • To provide direction for overall business and marketing strategies • To support the development of long-term and short-term organizational objectives • To guide employees in achieving these objectives • To serve as a standard against which the company’s/unit’s progress can be measured and evaluated

  39. Marketing Plan Project

  40. Define the Organization’s Mission • Mission – the essential purposes that differentiates us from other companies. • Examples on PP.42,43

  41. Marketing Objectives • Objectives = Goals • Set by target market[s], product categories in terms of sales, market share, profit, advertising/promotion objectives, customer loyalty, etc. • Must be measurable • Must have a time set for completion • Examples: Chapter Two,P.43 and Addendum Chapter 3 P.76

  42. Perform a Situation Analysis • SWOT is an acronym for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats • A SWOT analysis is a method of studying organizational resources and capabilities to assess the firm’s strengths and weaknesses and scanning its environment to identify opportunities and threats • Strengths reflect Core Competencies – what the company does well

  43. SWOT Analysis

  44. Develop a Marketing Strategy • Overall, a companywide program for selecting a particular target market and then satisfying consumers in that market through the marketing mix - product, distribution, promotion, and price. • Compare to competitors • Describe in terms of: market penetration, market development, product development, or diversification • Describe products as: Star, Cash Cow, Question Mark, or Dog • Describe in terms of: invest/grow, selectivity/earnings, or harvest/divest • Describe in terms of: price leadership, product differentiation, product leadership, or following in price/product. Refer to Addendum Chapter 3, P.76

  45. Market Structure Competitive Analysis Target Markets/Customers Product/Services Offering New Products/Marketing Research Pricing Strategy & Tactics Promotional Plans – Advertising & Promotion Distribution Strategy Physical Distribution Marketing Channels Marketing Staff Marketing Budgets Sales Plan Supporting Documents Tactical Plans

  46. Monitoring Results • Benchmarking • Customer Satisfaction Research • Marketing Cost Analysis • Sales Analysis • Marketing Audit Addendum Chapter 22, PP.679-689

  47. Next Class • January 31 • Catch up on Chapters 5 and 8 • Read Chapters 9 and 10