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Cross-cutting topic

Cross-cutting topic

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Cross-cutting topic

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  1. Cross-cutting topic Gender (ST-03)

  2. Gender What others say… Equality between women and men is fair and right. It is a worthy goal in and of itself, one that lies at the heart of human rights. But it is also central to progress in human development. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is committed to making gender equality a reality, not only because it is a moral imperative, but because it is a way to promote prosperity and well-being for all. (UNDP, 2005) “Reconstruction and development in post-conflict Afghanistan will be severely affected unless pervasive gender gaps are addressed” (World Bank Report, January 2006). What do you say?

  3. Gender What about you ? • Knowledge about gender issues - What is in it for you as a leader? • Knowledge about gender issues will: • enable you to deal with any gender related issues in your Ministry • enable you and others to get the best performance from Ministry’s staff • will especially encourage women in your Ministry to be more self confident and this to perform • better • will make you and your Ministry and example for other Ministries • … will make you a leader others follow!

  4. Gender What can we do? • Task: • Write down on a card what gender means to you in one sentence • Give it to the trainer • Let us see if we can find out what was written by a man and what was written by a woman

  5. Gender What is gender ? What is Gender • Gender describes the social roles and relations between men and women • Gender changes over time and is different in other cultures • Gender affects all aspects of life – economic, political and social • Gender shows what we expect men and women should do and how we expect them to behave • Gender affects men and women in the family, in the community and in the nation/state • Gender is about how power is used and shared (CIDA, Canada)

  6. Gender What is gender ? • Task • Who is typically doing what ? – and why. Discuss the following jobs and related gender roles: • Nursing • • Farming and agriculture • • Taking care of the family • • Leadership • • Weaving • • Accounting • • Work in factory • • Politics • • Medicine • • Teaching in elementary schools • • Writing • • Soldiery • • Journalism • • Flying aircraft • • Ministry (CIDA, Canada)

  7. Gender Gender roles and culture Forces shaping individual culture and gender roles (CIDA, Canada)

  8. Gender What is gender equality ? Gender equality means that women and men have equal conditions for realizing their full human rights and potential to contribute to national political, economic, social and cultural development and benefit equally from the results. Equality is essential for human development and peace. Gender equality requires equal enjoyment by women and men of socially-valued goods, opportunities, resources and rewards. Gender equality does not mean that men and women become the same, but that their opportunities and life chances are equal. (CIDA, Canada)

  9. Gender Equality and equity Gender equity is the process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, measures must often be available to compensate for historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from otherwise operating on a level playing field. Equity leads to equality. equity In the case of gender equality in governance structures, leadership training for female leaders is a measure of equity. CIDA, Canada)

  10. Gender Gender and development vs. women in development UNDP Source: UNDP

  11. Sub-module title Empowerment • Since it is women who predominantly experience inequality, empowerment supports women to become more aware of the unfair power relations they face. This process will be different for women of different according to their • race • ethnicity • culture • class • age • disability and/or • other status. CIDA, Canada)

  12. Sub-module title Gender analysis Gender analysis refers to the variety of methods used to understand the relationships between men and women, their access to resources, their activities, and the constraints they face relative to each other. Gender analysis provides information that recognizes that gender, and its relationship with race, ethnicity, culture, class, age, disability, and/or other status, is important in understanding the different patterns of involvement, behavior and activities that women and men have in economic, social and legal structures. CIDA, Canada)

  13. Sub-module title Measuring: Gender-sensitive and sex-specific indicators Gender sensitive indicators compare the situation of males to that of females, and show an aspect of their relative advantage (disadvantage). They can be constructed in several ways: Female (or male) share of a total (when it is evident that the total comprises the female share and the male share): 50 % indicates gender equality.

  14. Sub-module title The gender development index (GDI) and Afghanistan The GDI measures gender discrepancy between men and women for HDO indicators (life expectancy, education, standard of living) Afghanistan’s rank is 3.00 (third lowest rank slightly above Niger and Burkina Faso, significantly lower than neighboring countries)

  15. Gender And now… what for? • Task: • You just got to know what the whole gender discussion is all about! Is this a pure donor related • discussion? • As a man: write down two things in which your think women are better in (if possible relate this • to your work) • As a woman: write down two things men are better in (if possible relate this to your work) • Pin your cards on the pin board…

  16. Sub-module title Gender mainstreaming UNDP identifies mainstreaming as: taking account of gender equality concerns in all policy, programmes, administrative and financial activities, and in organizational procedures, thereby contributing to a profound organizational transformation (UNDP) Gender mainstreaming is defined by ECOSOC as: the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in any areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making women's as well as men's concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmers in all political, economic, and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. (E.1997.L.O. Para.4. Adopted by ECOSOC 17/7/97)

  17. Gender Mainstreaming Why mainstream gender? GOAL = Equality Good gender planning makes good economic sense so that women as well as men are active, using 100 % of the productive labor force. Studies have shown that discrimination based on gender increases poverty, slows economic growth and weakens governance. To promote gender equality is to promote fundamental human rights. "Strong evidence from around the world confirms that gender equality accelerates overall economic growth, strengthens democratic governance and reduces poverty and insecurity." (Kemal Dervis, UNDP Administrator, 6 Sept. 2005)

  18. Gender Possible results • The World Bank has estimated that… • … for each additional year of schooling • a woman's income increases by 10-20 % • agricultural productivity increases by 10 % • infant mortality drops by 10 %, and • the return on investment in deferred health care expenses is 25 %. Wouldn’t this be a result for the whole of a country?

  19. Gender Gender in Afghanistan - The World Bank Report “Reconstruction and development in post-conflict Afghanistan will be severely affected unless pervasive gender gaps are addressed” (World Bank Report, January 2006). With around 36 percent of women participating in the labour force, Afghan women contribute in large measure to the economic development.

  20. Gender MDG and gender in Afghanistan

  21. Gender Afghan Women and the Constitution Afghan Constitution The new Constitution of Afghanistan explicitly recognizes the fundamental principals of nondiscrimination and equal rights for women and men. Article Twenty-Two Any kind of discrimination between and privilege among the citizens of Afghanistan is prohibited. The citizens of Afghanistan – whether man or woman – have equal rights and duties before the law. Article Eighty-three In the election law measures shall be adopted so that the election system shall provide general and just representation for all people of the country, and that at least two female delegates shall be elected from each province. Article Eighty-four …The President, from among experts and experienced personalities, appoints the remaining one-third of the members for a period of five years. The president appoints 50% of these people from among women..

  22. Gender Some quotes from Afghanistan A gender focus entails men as well as women. Projects for women should coexist with gender initiatives, but there should be clarity between the two and care that neither group feels marginalized. A rights-based approach could work to address both women and men. An Afghan man explained: “Most people think that gender is about increasing the power of women while decreasing the power of men. Women over men. That’s what they think”. (FES, 2005) What do you say – is this what you expected?

  23. Gender Some quotes from Afghanistan Evidence from Afghanistan’s Human Development Report 2004 shows that social indicators for women in Afghanistan are among the worst in the world. Gender means men too An Afghan woman, head of an NGO, advised that we should “talk in general about Afghan people – not woman and man. This brings people together instead of dividing them. We are already divided in too many parts. And now we are further separating men and women. This will be another division that will create more problems. Instead let us work for development of all Afghans and for Afghanistan” (FES, 2005) What do you say – is this what you expected?

  24. Gender Some quotes from Afghanistan We are now three years into the making of Afghanistan as a gender-sensitive state, an NGO leader explained. “Many men are the victims of too much gender training,” the head of an international NGO elaborated. “And now they just make fun of it. It’s the same development we have seen in Western societies. If you push too hard, you turn it into something which is politically correct but not accepted and understood by the people” (FES, 2005) What do you say – is this what you expected?

  25. Gender What can we do? • Task: • Build groups of men and women mixed as well as of men only and women only (if possible) • Develop ideas how and where to implement gender related activity in your daily work and in the work of your Ministry • Present your ideas together with your constraints and possible positive effects • Let us discuss the ideas: • What is practical, what is not? • Do you see differences in the ideas developed by mixed groups and groups of only men or women, where and why?