DUSEL Experiment Development and Coordination (DEDC)Internal Design ReviewJuly 16-18, 2008Steve Elliott, Derek Elsworth, Daniela Leitner, Larry Murdoch, Tullis C. Onstott and Hank Sobel
Cross-cutting Applications (CCA) Robert McTaggart (SDSU) Program Manager Peggy McMahan (LBNL) Microelectronics Betsy Sutherland (BNL) Radiation Biology Bruce Bleakley (SDSU) Irradiation Studies Gary Anderson (SDSU) Algal Biomass Neil Reese (SDSU) UndergroundAgriculture Thomas Schumacher (SDSU) UndergroundAgriculture
Cross-cutting Applications (CCA) Xingyou Gu (SDSU) Howard Woodard (SDSU) Eugene Butler (SDSU) Arvid Boe (SDSU) Anil Kommareddy (SDSU) Michael Twedt (SDSU) Doug McFarland (SDSU) Larry Browning (SDSU) Qiquan Qiao (SDSU) Haiping Hong (SDSMT) Kurt Rosentrater (USDA) Joel Cuello (U of Arizona)
Radiation Biology • Objectives • Study the effects of “chronic” low dose exposures on human and mammalian cells. • Examine the effects of radiation on deep life at Homestake. • Why DUSEL? • 4850 is deeper than other low dose studies. Synergy exists with low background counting facility. • The native microbes can only be found at Homestake. • Why in the near future? • Low dose exposures affect cancer risk assessments for occupational doses, nuclear power, space/air travel. • Microbes have industrial applications, such as biofuels. • Expected results and their significance • Low dose studies test the hormesis effect. Immune responses to disease and radiation may be affected by low doses. • Hardiness to radiation important for study of extremophiles, history of deep life. Radiation may select out hyper-producers of ethanol, methane.
Initial experiments • Low dose studies of human cells • Cultured in Brookhaven, placed at Homestake in an incubator, taken back to Brookhaven for analysis. • Growth rates, metabolism, rates of apoptosis, etc. • Study human cancer cell lines • colon adenocarcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, ovarian adenocarcinoma, mammary gland cancer, human osteosarcoma, and human skin melanoma. • Cultured initially at SDSU. • Irradiation of microbes already isolated from Homestake • Irradiation done at 3M gamma irradiator in Brookings, or by X-rays at USDA facility. • Search for radiation resistance, applications to biofuels • Contact made with NASA, USD School of Medicine
Facility Needs • Facilities • A surface facility and an underground facility at 4850 needed for comparison studies. • Cell culture facility at both sites: SDSU facility is 16’ by 25’. • CO2, liquid nitrogen, incubators, autoclaves, refrigerator/freezer, fume hoodds, and other materials commonly used in biology. • Underground facility requires Radon-reduced air. • X-ray irradiator for ionizing radiation needed. • E&O • Participation in collaboration’s planned S4 teacher workshop • Hands-on opportunities for students and teachers at the surface facility (both for biologists and for radiation background assay). • Risk identification and management • Control of radiation dose at 4850 • X-ray irradiator requires health physics oversight, restricted use • Biocontainment important near low background counting
Schedule – S4 Activities Radiation assay of microbes can begin in year 1. Engineering design of surface and underground facilities needed (environmental control and ventilation essential). Full-scale operations at Homestake need cell culture facilities. Radiation safety needed in design for X-ray irradiator. Will invite potential collaborators at USD School of Medicine, NASA, etc. to collaboration workshop in year 1. Will develop and participate in E&O workshop in year 2.
Underground Agriculture Objectives Develop a testing center for sustainable agriculture technologies needed for NASA missions to the Moon and Mars. Grow transgenic crops in isolated environments for use in biopharmaceutical production, etc. Assist in making DUSEL a “green” laboratory (remediation of grey water, heavy minerals). Develop organic LED lighting system to reduce power needs and heat. Why is DUSEL the best or only place this experiment can be done? DUSEL is not the only place this could be done to get away from cosmic rays, but the availability of a large and safe space underground is significant. The temperature profile of the mine and removal of the diurnal cycle may assist in producing optimal growth conditions. The wide variety of regolith at Homestake is a good testing ground for the unknown content of a particular off-world site. Why is it important to do these experiments in the near future? Lunar mission “on-track” for 2020. Nutritional supplements and pharmaceuticals needed for treatment of disease/cancer. Expected results and their significance Interactions among soil, plants, light, microbes in controlled environments applicable to terrestrial agriculture. Tech transfer opportunities for local economy.
Initial Experiments Greenhouse experiments at SDSU with rock from Homestake Evaluate impact of particle size on drainage Grass and dicot species of plant Regular greenhouse lighting initially Short-duration annuals for multiple trials in a year Follow-up study Manipulate pH, plant nutrition from seedlings Monitor uptake of heavy metals Development of soil, root system, and microflora studied Transgenic crops Have contacted biopharmaceutical companies Initial applications at Homestake would seek level 2 containment
Facility Needs Facilities 2 initial sites requested: moderate and deep, each 6m X 8m with 3m in height. Potable water, deionizer, water storage/removal Ability to adjust temperatures to within ±2.5°C ; adjust for day/night; air-flow controls 500 W/m2 for electricity ; 1000 micromoles m-2 s-1 PAR Remote monitoring Autoclave E&O Plant Science displays with vistor’s center Student research opportunities Risk identification and management Environmental conditions important for plant studies Biocontainment of pollen needed for transgenics (would basically act like dust).
Schedule – S4 activities Initial characterization of plant growth in Homestake regolith needed. Level 2 containment for biopharmaceuticals would need some design. Potential collaborators in biopharmaceuticals, NASA to be contacted for S4 collaboration workshop (year 1). Will develop and participate in E&O workshop in year 2. Development of organic LED systems desired. Fully integrated agricultural systems need a partner like NASA and/or USDA.
Algal Biomass Objectives To develop a photobioreactor to grow algae for applications such as biofuel production. Why is DUSEL the best or only place this experiment can be done? Algae exists at Homestake. What applications can be derived from native species? The combined effect of the temperature profile at Homestake, reduction in UV/cosmic rays, and removal of the diurnal cycle needs to be studied to optimize the production of algae. Why is it important to do these experiments in the near future? Biofuels are needed for energy independence and decreased fuel costs. Algae can be used for carbon sequestration strategies. Can assist in the “greening” of DUSEL. Expected results and their significance Biofuels of interest for the South Dakota economy. Energy companies need to reduce carbon emissions. Can support underground agriculture and NASA initiatives (oxygen, waste processing, supply of nutrients).
Initial experiments Assay of native algae Growth characteristics, favored environmental conditions (including light intensity and frequency) Low and high dose radiation studies needed Background radiation assay needed at depth Develop a prototype photobioreactor Compare effects on the surface and different underground environments Supplement power needs through photovoltaics and direct light piping underground. Develop organic LEDs that can produce the optimal frequencies of light.
Facility Needs Facilities Need control of environmental conditions Surface and underground locations desired Industrial processing would need more space, initial prototypes could use something similar to what underground ag is requesting E&O Opportunities for access to surface studies for students/teachers, public Will participate in collaboration E&O workshop Risk identification and management Engineering needed to deliver light from surface through rock, to design systems that mix and process the algae. Need to process CO2, oxygen, water, wastes underground
Schedule – S4 activities Assay of Homestake algae can begin in year 1. Will coordinate with industrial partners and external interests for S4 collaboration workshop. Will participate in the development of E&O workshop in year 2. Engineering design needed for various systems (lighting, processing, heating/cooling, mechanical mixing, etc.) and coordination with Homestake.
Systems Test Facility for Microelectronics Objectives Develop a low background laboratory for long term system testing of, for example, microelectronics, photovoltaics and LEDs Sample microelectronics applications: Measure effects of alpha contamination in manufacturing process Study origin of the ELDR (Enhanced Low Dose Rate) effects in certain bipolar transistors Sample LED and photovoltaic effects Lifetime of organic LEDs in low radiation environment Because this laboratory could be built at the 300’ level, it is not unique to the Homestake site; however, it would have potential to Stimulate local economy Provide E&O opportunities Provide a multidisciplinary service for minimal cost Having this laboratory would provide a good synergy with the low background counting group
Facility Needs Facilities Electronics and materials laboratory space on 300’ level, including Radon-reduced environment Clean room X-ray irradiator shared with radiation biology Electronics and materials laboratory space on the surface E&O Undergraduates & teachers can take part in initial measurements of background radiation (alpha, gamma and neutron) at 300’ level After completion, facility would be available for Public tours Teacher/student workshops Research opportunities
Schedule Initial contacts have been made with radiation testing experts and discussions are in progress S-4 activities Experts and potential collaborators will be invited to the proposed S-4 workshop on crosscutting applications for Year 1 Engineering design of a facility will be pursued over the three years of S-4 Background levels will be mapped out at the 300’ level (alpha, gamma and neutron) in collaboration with low background counting group